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Cardenosine - Liquid Product For R&D

Discussion in 'IdeaLabs' started by haidut, Feb 9, 2018.

  1. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

    Joined:
    Mar 18, 2013
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    USA / Europe
    Some people reported that it relieves their muscle cramps or soreness after exercise. So, it should help for stiff muscles as St. Gyorgyi found out.
     
  2. Elephanto

    Elephanto Member

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    May 21, 2015
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    802
  3. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

    Joined:
    Mar 18, 2013
    Messages:
    14,700
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    USA / Europe
    I don't think so, and it has been used in humans for a long time. If you find in vivo studies showing such effects then I would be worried. There are a ton of studies out there showing it is antibacterial.
    https://www.researchgate.net/public...ial_activities_of_monoesters_of_succinic_acid
     
  4. Miguel

    Miguel Member

    Joined:
    Dec 29, 2013
    Messages:
    20
    @haidut @Blossom Here's the references updated to reflect their titles
    References:

    ATP:
    Anticancer activities of adenine nucleotides in tumor bearing hosts (very important!)
    http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/jpet/294/1/126.full.pdf
    A Single Dose Of Oral Atp Supplementation Improves Performance And Physiological Response During Lower Body Resistance Exercise In Recreational Res... - PubMed - NCBI
    Oral Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) Administration Increases Postexercise ATP Levels, Muscle Excitability, and Athletic Performance Following a Re... - PubMed - NCBI
    Treatment with Oral ATP decreases alternating hemiplegia of childhood with de novo ATP1A3 Mutation. - PubMed - NCBI
    Oral adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans. - PubMed - NCBI
    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets. - PubMed - NCBI
    Cardiovascular and pulmonary response to oral administration of ATP in rabbits. - PubMed - NCBI


    L-Pyroglutamic acid:

    1. Misc
    [Reproductive toxicity of metadoxine in rats]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Brain penetration of orally administered sodium pyroglutamate. - PubMed - NCBI
    Neurotoxic effects of endogenous materials: quinolinic acid, L-pyroglutamic acid, and thyroid releasing hormone (TRH). - PubMed - NCBI
    [Metadoxine in the treatment of vomiting in uremic patients under dialysis treatment]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Pyroglutamate kinetics and neurotoxicity studies in mice. - PubMed - NCBI


    2. Anti-cancer
    Isolation of an anti-angiogenic substance from Agaricus blazei Murill: its antitumor and antimetastatic actions. - PubMed - NCBI


    3. Insulin resistance / diabetes
    Anti-diabetic effect of pyroglutamic acid in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats and KK-Ay mice. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metadoxine, an ion-pair of pyridoxine and L-2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylate, blocks adipocyte differentiation in association with inhibition of the PKA... - PubMed - NCBI


    4. Vision / eyes / retina
    Pyroglutamic acid promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Reduction of enhanced rabbit intraocular pressure by instillation of pyroglutamic acid eye drops. - PubMed - NCBI


    5. Pro-dopamine / anti-prolactin
    Effect of metadoxine on striatal dopamine levels in C57 black mice. - PubMed - NCBI
    Isolation of pyroglutamic acid from hypothalamic tissue and significance of its inhibition of prolactin release. - PubMed - NCBI


    6. Mood / Mental Health / Cognition
    Pyroglutamic acid improves the age associated memory impairment. - PubMed - NCBI
    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study evaluating the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of extended-release metadoxine ... - PubMed - NCBI
    Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review. - PubMed - NCBI
    Attention benefits after a single dose of metadoxine extended release in adults with predominantly inattentive ADHD. - PubMed - NCBI
    Efficacy of metadoxine extended release in patients with predominantly inattentive subtype attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. - PubMed - NCBI
    Capillary electrophoresis for caffeine and pyroglutamate determination in coffees study of the in vivo effect on learning and locomotor activity in... - PubMed - NCBI
    Pyroglutamic acid improves learning and memory capacities in old rats. - PubMed - NCBI


    7. Neuroprotective
    [The central vascular and metabolic effects of pyroglutamic acid]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Protection by pyroglutamic acid and some of its newly synthesized derivatives against glutamate-induced seizures in mice. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Molecular mechanisms of pidolate magnesium action and its neurotropic affects]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of pyrrolidone-pyroglutamic acid composition on blood flow in rat middle cerebral artery. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Correlations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a combined preparation containing pyrrolidone and pyroglutamic acid]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Pyroglutamate stimulates Na+ -dependent glutamate transport across the blood-brain barrier. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Neuroprotective and cerebrovascular effects of GABA mimetics]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Evolution of the neuroprotection concept]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Neuroprotective properties of pyroglutamic acid in combination with pyrrolidone]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effect of a drug composition containing pyroglutamic acid and pyrrolidone on the cerebral circulation]. - PubMed - NCBI
    L-pyroglutamic acid protects rat cortical neurons against sodium glutamate-induced injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Role of oxoproline in the regulation of neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier. - PubMed - NCBI
    Investigations on the binding properties of the nootropic agent pyroglutamic acid. - PubMed - NCBI
    Pyroglutamic acid administration modifies the electrocorticogram and increases the release of acetylcholine and GABA from the guinea-pig cerebral c... - PubMed - NCBI
    Is glutamate a trigger factor in epileptic hyperactivity? - PubMed - NCBI


    8. Anti-alcohol / liver health / hepatitis
    Pyroglutamic acid stimulates DNA synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. - PubMed - NCBI
    Identification of a hepatoprotective peptide in wheat gluten hydrolysate against D-galactosamine-induced acute hepatitis in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metadoxine improves the three- and six-month survival rates in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metadoxine Versus Placebo for the Treatment of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. - PubMed - NCBI
    Treatment with metadoxine and its impact on early mortality in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. - PubMed - NCBI
    Preliminary findings on the use of metadoxine for the treatment of alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Capsule metadoxine in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Acute alcohol intoxication. - PubMed - NCBI
    Combined metadoxine and garlic oil treatment efficaciously abrogates alcoholic steatosis and CYP2E1 induction in rat liver with restoration of AMPK... - PubMed - NCBI
    A follow up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol dependence. - PubMed - NCBI
    [The therapeutic effect of metadoxine on alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metadoxine in the treatment of acute and chronic alcoholism: a review. - PubMed - NCBI
    Fibrosis and glycogen stores depletion induced by prolonged biliary obstruction in the rat are ameliorated by metadoxine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metadoxine in acute alcohol intoxication: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. - PubMed - NCBI
    Efficacy of metadoxine in the management of acute alcohol intoxication. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metadoxine prevents damage produced by ethanol and acetaldehyde in hepatocyte and hepatic stellate cells in culture. - PubMed - NCBI
    Treatment of alcoholic fatty liver: is the metabolic effect of metadoxine the only reason for improved liver function? - PubMed - NCBI
    Long-term ethanol administration enhances age-dependent modulation of redox state in central and peripheral organs of rat: protection by metadoxine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metadoxine accelerates fatty liver recovery in alcoholic patients: results of a randomized double-blind, placebo-control trial. Spanish Group for t... - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of Metadoxine on cellular status of glutathione and of enzymatic defence system following acute ethanol intoxication in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of metadoxine on cellular formation of fatty acid ethyl esters in ethanol treated rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Changes in expression of the albumin, fibronectin and type I procollagen genes in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis: effect of pyridoxol L,2-pyrrolidon-5... - PubMed - NCBI
    [Therapeutic use of metadoxine in chronic alcoholism. Double blind study of patients in a department of general medicine]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of metadoxine on cellular free fatty acid levels in ethanol treated rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metadoxine (pyrrolidone carboxylate of pyridoxine) antagonizes the locomotor-stimulatory effect of ethanol in mice. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effects of metadoxine on main biohumoral changes induced by chronic alcoholism]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Pyridoxol L,2-pyrrolidon-5 carboxylate prevents active fibroplasia in CCl4-treated rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Action of metadoxine on isolated human and rat alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Effect on enzymes in chronic ethanol-fed rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Alcoholic abstinence syndrome: short-term treatment with metadoxine. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Metadoxine in alcohol-related pathology]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Therapeutic use of metadoxine in alcohol-related mental and behavioral disorders]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Metadoxine in the control of oxidative stress caused by acute and chronic ethanol poisoning]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Treatment of alcoholic hepatic steatosis with metadoxine. Preliminary results on the evaluation of the effects of the drug by an ultrasonographic ... - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of pyridoxine-pyrrolidon-carboxylate on hepatic and cerebral ATP levels in ethanol treated rats. - PubMed - NCBI


    Succinic Acid:

    1. Misc.
    Ultrastructural analysis of reorganization of the periodontium in simulated torsion abnormality and its correction with succinic acid. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Biological Functions of Succinate (a Review of Foreign Experimental Studies)]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of 3-oxypiridine and succinic acid derivatives in the acute phase of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives on clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the uterus and its appendages]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [The use of succinate-containing preparations in combine therapy of diffuse toxic goiter]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Comparative studies of antihypoxic, neuroprotective and analgesic action of succinate-containing drugs]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Cell-permeable succinate prodrugs bypass mitochondrial complex I deficiency. - PubMed - NCBI
    Precipitation of free fatty acids generated by Malassezia - a possible explanation for the positive effects of lithium succinate in seborrhoeic der... - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinate promotes stem cell migration through the GPR91-dependent regulation of DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effect of succinic acid in alcoholic intoxication]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [CORRECTIVE ACTION ON ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY OF A KREBS CYCLE SERIES ACIDS: FUMARIC ACID AND SUCCINIC ACID]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [The role of succinic acid in neuron reaction to synaptic activation]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Efficiency of succinic acid infusion solutions in minor surgery]. - PubMed - NCBI

    2. Cancer
    A new target for the treatment of endometrium cancer by succinic acid. - PubMed - NCBI
    Studies in tissue metabolism: The effect of fumarate and succinate on tumour respiration. - PubMed - NCBI


    3. Reproductive/menopause
    [Effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives on endometrial leucocyte infiltration and lipid peroxidation in recrudescence of inflammator... - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives on affective status in recrudescence of inflammatory diseases of uterus and its appendages]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Treatment of climacteric symptoms with an ammonium succinate-based dietary supplement: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. - PubMed - NCBI


    4. ATP/Metabolism/insulin/diabetes/obesity
    Short-term succinic acid treatment mitigates cerebellar mitochondrial OXPHOS dysfunction, neurodegeneration and ataxia in a Purkinje-specific spino... - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effect of ammonium succinate on pharmacological effects of acetylsalicylic acid]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of the dimethyl ester on succinic acid on the hormonal and metabolic response to exercise in hereditarily diabetic starved rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Stimulation of insulin release in vivo by the methyl esters of succinic acid and glutamic acid. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of succinic acid dimethyl ester infusion on metabolic, hormonal, and enzymatic variables in starved rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Protective action of succinic acid monomethyl ester against the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin release caused by glucopenia or starvation... - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinate alters respiration, membrane potential, and intracellular K+ in proximal tubule. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of succinate on mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. 1. Comparative studies on ferrous ion and ADP . Fe/NADPH-induced peroxidation. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of succinate on mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. 2. The protective effect of succinate against functional and structural changes induced by... - PubMed - NCBI
    [The effect of succinate on respiration, transamination, and pyruvate formation in cells of the yeast Dipodascus magnusii]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Beneficial effect of succinic acid monoethyl ester on erythrocyte membrane bound enzymes and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-nicotinamide indu... - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinic acid monoethyl ester prevents oxidative stress in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type2 diabetic rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    THE ANTIKETOGENIC ACTIVITY OF SUCCINIC ACID. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of succinate, fumarate, and oxalacetate on ketone body production by liver slices from non-diabetic and diabetic rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of succinic and malic acids and fructose on ketosis in alloxan-diabetic rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    The use of succinic acid in the treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinic acid oxidation as the only energy support of intensive Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria. - PubMed - NCBI
    Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation by cumene hydroperoxide and its prevention by succinate. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Metabolic disorders in acute poisoning and their correction by sodium succinate]. - PubMed - NCBI


    5. GI/liver/digestion/endotoxin/Kidney
    Protective effects of succinic acid dimethyl ester infusion in experimental endotoxemia. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metabolic effects and fate of succinic acid methyl esters in rat hepatocytes. - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinate enhances the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-altered intestinal motility in the rat. - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinate recovers mitochondrial oxygen consumption in septic rat skeletal muscle. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Succinic acid infusions for correction of renal ischemia in patients with acute purulent pyelonephritis]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinate ameliorates energy deficits and prevents dysfunction of complex I in injured renal proximal tubular cells. - PubMed - NCBI
    [The clinical efficacy of a succinate-containing infusion drug during pharmacotherapy for hepatic lesions of varying genesis: results of meta-analy... - PubMed - NCBI
    [Metabolic correctors based on succinic acid as pathogenic therapy in chronic virus hepatitis]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Experimental study of cytoprotector effect of succinate-containing drugs on functional activity of liver]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of succinic and glutamic acid combination on energy metabolism in the liver of mice under conditions of hypoxia. - PubMed - NCBI
    Microbiota-Produced Succinate Improves Glucose Homeostasis via Intestinal Gluconeogenesis. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Evaluation of the efficiency of hepatoprotective monotherapy using succinic acid and methionine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at the stage ... - PubMed - NCBI
    [SODIUM SUCCINATE AS METHOD OF INTENSIVE CARE OPTIMIZATION OF NEWBORNS' MULTIORGAN FAILURE SYNDROM]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of cytochrome C and sodium succinate in cases of chronic hepatic disease. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effect of ethionamide and sodium succinate on NADPH-dependent oxidaton in the liver]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Disruption of liver energy metabolism in chronic cholecystitis and its metabolic correction with sodium succinate]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Oxidative phoshporylation, proton exchange and volume changes in hepatocyte mitochondria under the effect of exogenous succinate]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Biochemical evaluation of succinic acid therapy in urolithiasis. - PubMed - NCBI


    6. Neuroprotective/CNS
    Successful treatment with succinate in a patient with MELAS. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of sodium succinate on gas exchange in rats with barbiturate-induced coma. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inhibitory effects of succinic acid on chemical kindling and amygdala electrical kindling in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    [The effect of succinic acid on postresuscitation pathology of the CNS and of the body as a whole]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effects of sodium succinate on functional, biochemical and morphological indicators of CNS repair in rats after 10-minute circulation arrest]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinate and artificial maintenance of normal body temperature synergistically correct lethal disorders in thiopental coma rat. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Use of sodium succinate in complex treatment of ischemic stroke]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effects of silymarin and its combination with succinic acid on brain bioenergetics in rats with experimental inhibition of beta-oxidation of fatty... - PubMed - NCBI
    Synergism of isothermal regimen and sodium succinate in experimental therapy of barbiturate coma. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of silimarin, succinic acid, and their combination on bioenergetics of the brain in experimental encephalopathy. - PubMed - NCBI
    Maintenance of homeostasis in the aging hypothalamus: the central and peripheral roles of succinate. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Cerebroprotective effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives in experimental diabetes mellitus]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Neuroprotective effects of succinate-containing antihypoxante reamberine in treatment of patients with toxicohypoxic brain injury]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effects of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivates on the dynamics of vertebral/neurologic symptoms after the surgical treatment of disk her... - PubMed - NCBI
    [Protective effect of succinic acid on cerebellar Purkinje cells of neonatal rats with convulsion]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinate supplementation improves metabolic performance of mixed glial cell cultures with mitochondrial dysfunction. - PubMed - NCBI
    Sodium succinate therapy in multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders. - PubMed - NCBI
    The analeptic effect of succinate in coma and in confusional states. - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinate therapy in multiple sclerosis. - PubMed - NCBI
    Sodium succinate; an analeptic for barbiturate poisoning in man. - PubMed - NCBI
    The analeptic effect of sodium succinate in barbiturate anesthesia in rabbits. - PubMed - NCBI
    The analeptic effect of sodium succinate on barbiturate depression in man. - PubMed - NCBI
    The analeptic effect of sodium succinate on barbiturate depression in man. - PubMed - NCBI


    7. Stress/Mood/Cognition
    [Metabolic effects of succinic and nicotinic acids in emotional pain stress]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Anxiolytic-like effect of succinic acid in mice. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Antidepressant effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (experimental study)]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of 3-oxypiridine and succinic acid derivatives in alloxan diabetes]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Comparative analysis of the anxiolytic effects of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives. - PubMed - NCBI
    The antidotal action of sodium succinate in the mescaline psychosis. - PubMed - NCBI
    A further note on the mechanism of the antidotal action of sodium succinate in the mescaline psychosis. - PubMed - NCBI
    Reserpine depression treated with sodium succinate; a preliminary report. - PubMed - NCBI
    The effect of succinic semialdehyde and sodium succinate on the higher nervous activity in normal subjects. - PubMed - NCBI


    8. Antibacterial/antiviral/antipathogen
    [Use of succinate-containing agents in the treatment of infectious diseases]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Inhibitory action of succinic acid on the multiplication of influenza virus in embryonated eggs]. - PubMed - NCBI


    9. Asthma/Allergies/histamine/inflammation/pulmonary
    Inhibition of mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis by succinic acid. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Therapeutic properties of sodium succinate in pulmonary tuberculosis]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [The therapeutic effect of succinic acid in asthma and asthmatic dyspnea]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Treatment of whooping cough with succinic acid]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Succinic acid as respiratory analeptic in barbituric narcosis]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Therapeutic effect of succinic acid in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and disseminated lupus erythematosus; preliminary note]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Succinate therapy in acute rheumatic fever. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Antifibrotic action of sodium succinate in experimental tuberculosis]. - PubMed - NCBI


    10. CVD/circulation/hypoxia
    Cardioprotective effect of succinate against ischemia/reperfusion injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Ammonium succinate--an effective corrector of cerebral circulatory hypoxia]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Cardioprotective effects of trimetazidine and a combination of succinic and malic acids in acute myocardial ischemia. - PubMed - NCBI
    Antihypoxic and antioxidant effects of exogenous succinic acid and aminothiol succinate-containing antihypoxants. - PubMed - NCBI
    [The answer reaction of system complement on correction of hypoxia of hydazepam and succinic acid]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effect of sodium succinate on oxidative stress in erythrocytes during physical loading]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Exogenous succinate reduces vibration-induced disorders of energy metabolism in rabbit cardiomyocytes]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Pharmacological characterization of the mechanisms underlying the vascular effects of succinate. - PubMed - NCBI
    Hyperbaric oxygen exposures at 3 and 4 atmospheres absolute pressure for experimental gas gangrene: succinate protection against oxygen toxicity. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Metabolic effects of papaverine and pentamine combinations with nicotinic and succinic acids in experimental vascular pathology in rabbits]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effect of sodium succinate on several carbohydrate metabolism indices of ischemic myocardium]. - PubMed - NCBI


    11. Muscle/anabolism/ergogenic/actoprotective
    Succinate promotes skeletal muscle protein synthesis via Erk1/2 signaling pathway. - PubMed - NCBI
    [The effect of succinate combined with cytochrome C on postischemic disorders in the skeletal muscle of the extremities]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Mechanisms of actoprotective action of succinic acid's derivatives]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effect of sodium succinate on metabolic and morphological changes in acute cooling]. - PubMed - NCBI


    11. Radiation/EMF
    [The protection of mice against x-radiation using sodium succinate]. - PubMed - NCBI
    The inhibitory effect of succinate on radiation-enhanced mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. - PubMed - NCBI


    Inosine:

    1. Misc.
    Effect of inosine on the plasma concentration of uridine and purine bases. - PubMed - NCBI
    Role of inosine in prevention of methaemoglobinaemia in the pig: in vitro studies. - PubMed - NCBI
    The adenosine metabolite inosine is a functional agonist of the adenosine A2A receptor with a unique signaling bias. - PubMed - NCBI
    Interactions between inosine and adenosine: experimental researches. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Clearance and transformation of inosine in the body]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metabolic fate of hypoxanthine and inosine in cultured cardiomyocytes. - PubMed - NCBI


    2. Cancer
    [The cytochemical observation of inosine effect on glucose metabolism of BGC-823 human gastric carcinoma cell line]. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Clinical and experimental study of 236 ED nutritional supportive therapy and inosine nutrition protection in postoperative gastric cancer patients]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Interaction of metabolism of aspartate and inosine and energy state of malignant cells. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine pranobex-BAN increases the resistance to the challenge with cells or cell-free fluid from Yoshida ascites tumor. - PubMed - NCBI


    3. Reproductive/menopause
    Extracellular inosine is modulated by H2O2 and protects sertoli cells against lipoperoxidation and cellular injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    An experimental study of the effect of ischemia on testicular structure in the rat. Efficacy of intravenous inosine. - PubMed - NCBI


    4. ATP/Metabolism/insulin/diabetes/obesity
    Blood glucose and insulin concentrations are reduced in humans administered sucrose with inosine or adenosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Serum glucose and insulin response in rats administered with sucrose or starch containing adenosine, inosine or cytosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    The novel inosine analogue, INO-2002, protects against diabetes development in multiple low-dose streptozotocin and non-obese diabetic mouse models... - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine partially mimics the effects of glucose on ionic fluxes, electrical activity, and insulin release in mouse pancreatic B-cells. - PubMed - NCBI
    Enhanced ATP and GTP synthesis from hypoxanthine or inosine after myocardial ischemia. - PubMed - NCBI
    Suppression of food intake by adenosine and inosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of uridine and inosine on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and activated lipolysis in adipose tissue. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine-stimulated insulin release and metabolism of inosine in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine causing insulin release and increased myocardial uptake of carbohydrates relative to free fatty acids in dogs. - PubMed - NCBI
    "Hormone-like" effect of adenosine and inosine on gluconeogenesis from lactate in isolated hepatocytes. - PubMed - NCBI


    5. GI/liver/digestion/endotoxin/Kidney
    Inosine alleviates rat caerulein pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Differential requirement for A2a and A3 adenosine receptors for the protective effect of inosine in vivo. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine modulates gut barrier dysfunction and end organ damage in a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine reduces inflammation and improves survival in a murine model of colitis. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine inhibits inflammatory cytokine production by a posttranscriptional mechanism and protects against endotoxin-induced shock. - PubMed - NCBI
    The effect of metipranolol and inosine on total hepatic ischemia of rats in vivo. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine infusion prevents mortality in endotoxic shock. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Amelioration of inflammatory reaction in patients with severe sepsis with inosine]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Adenosine and inosine exert cytoprotective effects in an in vitro model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Adenosine A2A receptors and uric acid mediate protective effects of inosine against TNBS-induced colitis in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Cytoprotective effects of adenosine and inosine in an in vitro model of acute tubular necrosis. - PubMed - NCBI
    Protective effects of inosine on urinary bladder function in rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of inosine on response to in vitro hypoxia in absence of substrate on bladder dysfunction in adult rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Shockwave lithotripsy and protective role of inosine: early and late evaluation in an experimental model. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine reduces microcirculatory disturbance and inflammatory organ damage in experimental acute pancreatitis in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of adenosine and inosine on ureagenesis in hepatocytes. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine in ischaemic renal surgery: long-term follow-up. - PubMed - NCBI
    Preservation of the ischaemic canine kidney with inosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Renal preservation with inosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Intravenous inosine for ischaemic renal surgery. - PubMed - NCBI
    Further studies of renal preservation: protection of the ischemic kidney with inosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Enhanced preservation of the ischaemic kidney with inosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Protective effect of inosine administration on ischemic rat liver cell injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of adenosine and inosine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. - PubMed - NCBI


    6. Neuroprotective/CNS
    Secondary degeneration reduced by inosine after spinal cord injury in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Protective mechanisms of inosine in platelet activation and cerebral ischemic damage. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine reduces ischemic brain injury in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine reverses the inhibitory effects of the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, DM-BODIPY-dihydropyridine, on neuritogenesis in an in vitro rat supe... - PubMed - NCBI
    Immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of inosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Neuroprotective effect of inosine on axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of inosine on axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine stimulates axon growth in vitro and in the adult CNS. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine induces axonal rewiring and improves behavioral outcome after stroke. - PubMed - NCBI
    Direct protection of inosine on PC12 cells against zinc-induced injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine stimulates extensive axon collateral growth in the rat corticospinal tract after injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Identification of inosine as an endogenous modulator for the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptors. - PubMed - NCBI
    Adenosine, inosine, and guanosine protect glial cells during glucose deprivation and mitochondrial inhibition: correlation between protection and A... - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine mediates the protective effect of adenosine in rat astrocyte cultures subjected to combined glucose-oxygen deprivation. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine attenuates spontaneous activity in the rat neurogenic bladder through an A2B pathway. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine enhances recovery of grasp following cortical injury to the primary motor cortex of the rhesus monkey. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine, an Endogenous Purine Nucleoside, Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: a Role for ... - PubMed - NCBI
    Oral Inosine Persistently Elevates Plasma antioxidant capacity in Parkinson's disease. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine Improves Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity following Spinal Cord Injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Modulatory effects of inosine, guanosine and uridine on lipopolysaccharide-evoked increase in spike-wave discharge activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo/... - PubMed - NCBI
    Non-adenosine nucleoside inosine, guanosine and uridine as promising antiepileptic drugs: a summary of current literature. - PubMed - NCBI
    Oral administration of inosine promotes recovery after experimental spinal cord injury in rat. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine improves functional recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine to increase serum and cerebrospinal fluid urate in Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine enhances axon sprouting and motor recovery after spinal cord injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    The protective effects of inosine against chemical hypoxia on cultured rat oligodendrocytes. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine augments the effects of a Nogo receptor blocker and of environmental enrichment to restore skilled forelimb use after stroke. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine alters gene expression and axonal projections in neurons contralateral to a cortical infarct and improves skilled use of the impaired limb. - PubMed - NCBI
    Immunomodulatory effect of the purine nucleoside inosine following spinal cord contusion injury in rat. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine promotes recovery of skilled motor function in a model of focal brain injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of inosine on neuronal apoptosis and the expression of cytochrome C mRNA following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of inosine on seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole, bicuculline, or picrotoxin. - PubMed - NCBI
    Central effects of nicotinamide and inosine which are not mediated through benzodiazepine receptors. - PubMed - NCBI
    Nicotinamide, inosine and hypoxanthine, putative endogenous ligands of the benzodiazepine receptor, opposite to diazepam are much more effective ag... - PubMed - NCBI
    The benzodiazepines and inosine antagonize caffeine-induced seizures. - PubMed - NCBI
    Anticonvulsant doses of inosine result in brain levels sufficient to inhibit [3H] diazepam binding. - PubMed - NCBI
    Dissimilar effects of nicotinamide and inosine, putative endogenous ligands of the benzodiazepine receptors, on pentylenetetrazol seizures in four ... - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine may be an endogenous ligand for benzodiazepine receptors on cultured spinal neurons. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine, an endogenous ligand of the brain benzodiazepine receptor, antagonizes pentylenetetrazole-evoked seizures. - PubMed - NCBI
    Identification of inosine and hypoxanthine as endogenous ligands for the brain benzodiazepine-binding sites. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Therapeutic effect of inosine in Tourette syndrome and its possible mechanism of action]. - PubMed - NCBI


    7. Stress/Mood/Cognition
    Glutamatergic system and mTOR-signaling pathway participate in the antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the tail suspension test. - PubMed - NCBI
    Signaling pathways underlying the antidepressant-like effect of inosine in mice. - PubMed - NCBI
    Oral administration of inosine produces antidepressant-like effects in mice. - PubMed - NCBI
    The antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST is associated with both adenosine A1 and A 2A receptors. - PubMed - NCBI
    Benzodiazepine-like effects of inosine on punished behavior of pigeons. - PubMed - NCBI


    8. Immunomodulation/Antibacterial/antiviral/antipathogen
    Inosine pranobex is safe and effective for the treatment of subjects with confirmed acute respiratory viral infections: analysis and subgroup analy... - PubMed - NCBI
    [Immunological and clinical study on therapeutic efficacy of inosine pranobex]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine improves islet xenograft survival in immunocompetent diabetic mice. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine stimulates chemotaxis, Ca2+-transients and actin polymerization in immature human dendritic cells via a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism... - PubMed - NCBI
    Efficacy of inosine pranobex oral therapy in subclinical human papillomavirus infection of the vulva: a randomized double-blinded placebo controlle... - PubMed - NCBI
    Immunostimulating properties of the complexes of inosine derivatives. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine prabonex in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine pranobex in the combination therapy of HIV infection. - PubMed - NCBI
    IN VITRO INfIBITION OF HHV-1 REPLICATION BY INOSINE PRANOBEX AND INTERFERON-α. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Inosine pranobex - cytotoxic activities and effect of on replication of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV-2, HPIV-4), entroviruses (CA16, EV71) an... - PubMed - NCBI
    Immunomodulatory effects of inosine pranobex on cytokine production by human lymphocytes. - PubMed - NCBI
    Isoprinosine (inosine pranobex BAN, INPX) in the treatment of AIDS and other acquired immunodeficiencies of clinical importance. - PubMed - NCBI
    Immunotherapy of genital warts with inosine pranobex (Imunovir): preliminary study. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine analogs as anti-leishmanial agents. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Therapeutic experiences with the immunostimulator inosine pranobex]. - PubMed - NCBI
    The efficacy of inosine pranobex in preventing the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. The ... - PubMed - NCBI
    Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of inosine pranobex in rheumatoid arthritis. - PubMed - NCBI
    ACTH--inosine pranobex in the treatment of AIDS. Encouraging results. - PubMed - NCBI
    Hypoxanthine and inosine analogues as chemotherapeutic agents in Chagas' disease. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine pranobex in the treatment of HIV infection: a review. - PubMed - NCBI


    9. Asthma/Allergies/histamine/pulmonary
    In vivo inosine protects alveolar epithelial type 2 cells against hyperoxia-induced DNA damage through MAP kinase signaling. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine exerts a broad range of antiinflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Anti-inflammatory effects of inosine in human monocytes, neutrophils and epithelial cells in vitro. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine reduces systemic inflammation and improves survival in septic shock induced by cecal ligation and puncture. - PubMed - NCBI
    Anti-inflammatory effects of inosine in allergic lung inflammation in mice: evidence for the participation of adenosine A2A and A 3 receptors. - PubMed - NCBI
    Anti-inflammatory effects of purine nucleosides, adenosine and inosine, in a mouse model of pleurisy: evidence for the role of adenosine A2 receptors. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine reduces pain-related behavior in mice: involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor subtypes and protein kinase C pathways. - PubMed - NCBI
    The novel inosine analogue INO-2002 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model of acute lung injury. - PubMed - NCBI


    10. CVD/circulation/hypoxia
    Effects of inosine on adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation in the open chest dog. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine--a natural modulator of contractility and myocardial blood flow in the ischemic heart? - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of inosine on reperfusion injury after cardiopulmonary bypass. - PubMed - NCBI
    Antiarrhythmic and arrhythmogenic action of inosine in experimental ventricular tachyarrhythmias. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of inosine on reperfusion injury after heart transplantation. - PubMed - NCBI
    Protective effect of inosine against adrenaline toxicity in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    The influence of inosine on adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    Protective effect of inosine on adrenaline-induced myocardial necrosis. - PubMed - NCBI
    Evidence that the intracellular effects of adenosine in the guinea-pig aorta are mediated by inosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine increases anoxic tolerance and postischaemic restitution of the heart: experimental studies on possible mechanism(s) of action. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of inosine on cardiac adenine nucleotide metabolism in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Comparison of the antihypoxic effect of alpha-tocopherol, NAD and inosine during prolonged artificial circulation]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine infusion in dogs with acute ischaemic left ventricular failure: favourable effects on myocardial performance and metabolism. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine effect on high-energy phosphate content, mechanical activity of glycerinated fiber bundles, morphology and microcirculation in myocardium i... - PubMed - NCBI
    Nucleotide degradation and functional impairment during cardioplegia: amelioration by inosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine : a naturally occurring cardiotonic agent. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine: a protective agent in an organ culture model of myocardial ischemia. - PubMed - NCBI
    The influence of inosine on the size of myocardial ischaemia and myocardial metabolism in the pig. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine as a selective inotropic agent on ischaemic myocardium? - PubMed - NCBI
    Inotropic and chronotropic responses to inosine in isolated and blood-perfused dog atria. - PubMed - NCBI
    The effect of uridine and inosine on capillary permeability in the rat. - PubMed - NCBI
    Nonmetabolically coupled coronary vasodilatation during inosine infusion in dogs. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Experimental analysis of various cardiac effects of inosine]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Is inosine the physiological energy source of pig erythrocytes? - PubMed - NCBI
    The protective action of inosine on isolated arteries in hypoxia. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of inosine on ventricular regional perfusion and infarct size after coronary occlusion. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Indications for the use of inosine in myocardial infarct (a clinical and experimental study)]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Positive inotropic response to inosine in the in situ canine heart. - PubMed - NCBI
    The heart production in energy-depleted human erythrocytes induced by glucose, inosine and adenine. - PubMed - NCBI
    The potentiation of the activity of adenosine on coronary blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate by inosine in the dog. - PubMed - NCBI
    Prevention of chronic experimental heart insufficiency by inosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Haemodynamic effects of inosine. A new drug for failing human heart? - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of inosine on pial arterioles: potentiation of adenosine-induced vasodilation. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Stimulation of reparative processes in myocardial infarction: comparative evaluation of the effects of piracetam and inosine]. - PubMed - NCBI
    The effect of inosine on the post ischemic heart as bio-energy recovering factor in 31P-MRS. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine preserves ATP during ischemia and enhances recovery during reperfusion. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effect of inosine on function and adenine nucleotide content of the isolated working rat heart: studies of postischemic reperfusion. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effects of inosine on glycolysis and contracture during myocardial ischemia. - PubMed - NCBI


    11. Muscle/anabolism/ergogenic/actoprotective
    Inosine attenuates tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle reperfusion injury. - PubMed - NCBI
    Inosine-5'-monophosphate is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis of skeletal muscle. - PubMed - NCBI
    [Effects of inosine injection in expression of myosin heavy chain in intrafusal and extrafusal myofibers in soleus muscle of tail-suspended rats]. - PubMed - NCBI


    12. Radiation/EMF
    Protection of mice against X-ray injuries by the post-irradiation administration of guanosine and inosine. - PubMed - NCBI
    Protective effects of inosine on mice subjected to lethal total-body ionizing irradiation. - PubMed - NCBI
    Guanosine and inosine as natural antioxidants and radioprotectors for mice exposed to lethal doses of gamma-radiation. - PubMed - NCBI
    Guanosine and inosine display antioxidant activity, protect DNA in vitro from oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species, and serve as rad... - PubMed - NCBI
    Preventive effect of inosine of leukopenia induced by radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. - PubMed - NCBI
    [The radioprotective effect of riboxine (inosine)]. - PubMed - NCBI
    Radioprotective effect of inosine and its enhancement by magnesium and global hypoxia. - PubMed - NCBI
     
  5. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

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    Thanks, much appreciated.
     
  6. acrylic

    acrylic Member

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    Any long-time users here willing to share their experiences or blood labs?

    Very curious.
     
  7. Mufasa

    Mufasa Member

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    I cant speak for long term, but short term, used as a mouth wash, it makes my gums perfectly happy and pink, consistently, every time I use it, within 10 minutes.
     
  8. James b

    James b Member

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    Seems like a bit of a waste of a relatively expensive product to be using it as a mouthwash, no?
     
  9. Mufasa

    Mufasa Member

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    I ingest it after swishing my mouth. I guess the absorption is only better if you let it in your mouth for some time.
     
  10. James b

    James b Member

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    Ah gotcha, thanks. Not a bad idea at all. What gave you the idea that it would be good for gum health? I'll be sure to try this as my gums can bleed quite easily.
     
  11. Mufasa

    Mufasa Member

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    I don't know. I guess it just "felt" "right". It also stimulates my saliva production in seconds. Feels like a warm bath in my mouth.
     
  12. koky

    koky Member

    Joined:
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    from ray:
    I’m not sure what the purpose of the supplement is. ATP, and the adenosine and phosphate products, can be risky to use internally.
    Mol Cancer Res. 2016 Nov;14(11):1087-1096.
    Extracellular ATP a New Player in Cancer Metabolism: NSCLC Cells Internalize ATP In Vitro and In Vivo Using Multiple Endocytic Mechanisms.
    Qian Y, Wang X, Li Y, Cao Y, Chen X.
    Abstract
    Intratumoral extracellular ATP concentrations are 1000 times higher than those in normal tissues of the same cell origin. However, whether or not cancer cells use the abundant extracellular ATP was unknown until we recently reported that cancer cells internalize ATP. The internalized ATP was found to substantially increase intracellular ATP concentration and promote cell proliferation and drug resistance in cancer cells. Here, using a nonhydrolyzable fluorescent ATP (NHF-ATP), radioactive and regular ATP, coupled with high and low molecular weight dextrans as endocytosis tracers and fluorescence microscopy and ATP assays, cultured human NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells as well as A549 tumor xenografts were found to internalize extracellular ATP at concentrations within the reported intratumoral extracellular ATP concentration range. In addition to macropinocytosis, both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis significantly contribute to the ATP internalization, which led to an approximately 30% (within 45 minutes) or more than 50% (within 4 hours) increase in intracellular ATP levels after ATP incubation. This increase could not be accounted for by either purinergic receptor signaling or increased intracellular ATP synthesis rates in the ATP-treated cancer cells. These new findings significantly deepen our understanding of the Warburg effect by shedding light on how cancer cells in tumors, which are heterogeneous for oxygen and nutrition supplies, take up extracellular ATP and use the internalized ATP to perform multiple previously unrecognized functions of biological importance. They strongly suggest the existence of ATP sharing among cancer and stromal cells in tumors and simultaneously identify multiple new anticancer targets.
    IMPLICATIONS:
    Extracellular ATP is taken up by human lung cancer cells and tumors via macropinocytosis and other endocytic processes to supplement their extra energy needs for cancer growth, survival, and drug resistance, thus providing novel targets for future cancer therapy. Mol Cancer Res; 14(11); 1087-96. ©2016 AACR.
     
  13. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

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    Did you send him the studies in the main Cardenosine thread? Especially this one? It directly shows that administration of ATP internally had profound anti-tumor effects.
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ddr.430280344
     
  14. Obi-wan

    Obi-wan Member

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    @haidut you mentioned " Insulin, calcium, fructose and palmitic acid stimulate PDH but ATP inhibits it. So, ATP production should not be too high and some of the energy from food should be "wasted" as heat - i.e. mild uncoupling of metabolism is better than completely efficient synthesis of ATP." on another thread. So why more ATP?
     
  15. koky

    koky Member

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    I sent him the entire thread - I'll resend this link
     
  16. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

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    Because in most people, who are relatively hypo, ATP production is low. ATP is also the cardinal absorbent in Ling's AI hypothesis and it is the primary structural stabilizing molecule in the body. So, for many (maybe most) people boosting ATP a bit is not a bad idea. I doubt using Cardenosine you will reach levels that inhibit ATP. Such levels can probably only be reached with IV administration and would require several grams in a single dose.
     
  17. Soren

    Soren Member

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    Anyone have any thoughts of applying LLLT to the scalp after Cardenosine has been placed on the scalp and is still there. Might this cause some negative effects a sort of "atp overload"? Or would the light create some damaging degradation of the ingredients in cardenosine that could be toxic.

    Have no knowledge or evidence to suggest this would be the case just throwing it out there if anyone has any thoughts.

    Was about to do some red light on the scalp and have the remains of cardenosine on still from last night.
     
  18. Soren

    Soren Member

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    Very interesting think I might have to try this. How many drops do you use and how often do you use it as a mouthwash, everyday every other day?
     
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