haidut

Member
Joined
Mar 18, 2013
Messages
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Location
USA / Europe
Our new product is finally here and it is "all about the ATP". I mentioned quite a few times on the forum and over email that we plan on releasing an ATP product and people have been asking me about it for the last few months. It seems a very simple task at first but we thought that we can do a bit better than just release a plain ATP supplement. So, without further ago here is what it contains and why.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the cardinal adsorbent in Gilbert Ling's theory of the cell. While mainstream medicine claims that the data on oral administration of ATP is inconclusive, there are several human studies showing that oral ATP is absorbed and has several beneficial effects on muscle health. In addition, an animal study in the references section below shows striking reduction of tumor growth, reversal of cachexia and mortality in animals administered ATP. While tumor are known to produce ATP in amounts similar to normal cells, they do it through glycolysis. So, providing exogenous ATP seems to reduce the excessive glycolysis, lactic acid buildup, and thus the breakdown of tissues (cachexia) in order to feed the tumor. This suggests (once again) that tumor cells are not evil but simply cells under a lot of stress, and reduction of this stress through the provision of beneficial chemicals is therapeutic. So, I think the addition of ATP to Cardenosine does not really need much justification given it is billed as a pro-ATP product.

As a testament to the importance of ATP in every cell and especially cells highly sensitive to energy deprivation, recent human clinical trials found that increasing ATP levels in the scalp promotes hair growth in male androgenic alopecia, also known as male pattern baldness (MPB). Hair follicles are among the cellular systems most sensitive to ATP depletion, perhaps second only to the brain. The human trials actually used a saturated fatty acid called pentadecanoic acid topically on the scalp and found that the effectiveness of that fatty acid in restoring hair growth was due to its effects on raising scalp levels of succinic acid, and succinic acid then dramatically increased ATP levels. This is not surprising as succinic acid is a very efficient precursor of ATP. So, by using Cardenosine on the scalp, it may be able to deliver ATP directly to those hair follicles and restore hair growth. Cardenosine also contains succinic acid, for an additional ATP boost, and even if there are some doubts about transdermal ATP absorption effectiveness it has been confirmed numerous times (in animals and humans) that succinic acid absorbs through the skin.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2494.1993.tb00592.x/abstract
"...The effect of the glyceride of pentadecanoic acid (PDG) in treating male pattern alopecia has already been confirmed in a double blind controlled clinical test. In order to study the mechanism of the hair growing effect of PDG, ATP levels were measured in the hair follicles of rabbits. The ATP levels in telogen hair follicles increased remarkably with the application of PDG. To examine this effect, the metabolic properties of pentadecanoic acid (PDA) were investigated using the mitochondrial fraction prepared from guinea-pig hair follicles. It was shown that PDA could be metabolized in hair follicles, and succinic acid, which was formed in the degradation process of PDA, had a remarkable ATP producing ability. These results suggest that the hair growing effect of PDG depends on the efficient supply of energy to hair follicles, and this mechanism seems to be derived from the metabolic property of the odd numbered carbon fatty acid, PDA."

Based on the above study, pentadecanoic acid (another SFA) is now approved in Japan as topical treatment for hair loss.
Clinical Evaluation of The Product Containing Glyceride of Pentadecanoic Acid on Male Pattern Alopecia in Women

A combination of SolBan + Cardenosine (SolBan - Liquid Aspirin/Caffeine/Niacinamide Mix) may be even more beneficial due to the additional antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effects of caffeine, niacinamide, aspirin, inosine, B6, etc.

But I am jumping the gun here, so let's get back to the story on how I got around to releasing Cardenosine. About a year ago I stumbled upon a product sold in Europe and Latin America as an anti-alcohol and liver health remedy. The product is known as Metadoxine, and it is a simple combination of L-pyroglutamic acid (L-PGA) and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine Hcl).
Metadoxine - Wikipedia
As a side note, despite its (unfortunate) common name suggesting it is a variation of glutamic acid, L-PGA is actually just an oxidized version of the amino acid proline (which Peat has written many times about comparing it to glycine). The chemical name of L-PGA is 5-oxo-proline (5-keto-proline) and its properties are much more similar to proline than to glutamic acid. In fact, L-PGA has been shown to act as a glutamate antagonist, at least in the brain.
The main effect of Metadoxine, observed across many human and animal studies, is to accelerate alcohol metabolism (by speeding up BOTH alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase) and reduce the negative effects of acetaldehyde on the entire organism. While initially it was thought that increase of activity in the alcohol metabolizing enzymes was the main mechanism of action for Metadoxine, more recent studies discovered that the chemical also prevents the depletion of ATP that alcohol consumption induces. This prevention of ATP depletion is likely at least as important for the observed benefits of Metadoxine, as speeding up the activity of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes.

"...Metadoxine is an ion pair salt of pyridoxine and pyrrolidon carboxilate (PCA).[1] Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is a precursor of coenzymes including pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP), which accelerates the metabolic degradation of ethanol and prevents adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inactivation by acetaldehyde. Pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes also play a role in the biosynthesis of four important neurotransmitters: serotonin (5-HT), epinephrine, norepinephrine and GABA: see vitamin B6 functions. L-PGA is present in the diet and is produced endogenously by enzymatic conversion of gamma-glutamyl amino acids to L-PGA and free amino acids. In the central nervous system (CNS), L-PGA was found to have a role in composition of neuro-active molecules. Its production has been linked to hepatic gamma-glutamyl transferase activity and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Lastly, it was shown that L-PGA facilitates ATP synthesis by stimulating de novo synthesis of purines."

And since the metabolism of alcohol requires ATP, the current theory is that Metadoxine exerts most of its protective effects on the liver by preventing the decline of ATP when alcohol is consumed. This makes sense and matches the recent posts about inosine ameliorating fatty liver by raising levels of ATP. Furthermore, other studies found that Metadoxine (or more specifically its component L-PGA) increases de novo synthesis of ATP from purines (e.g. inosine) and thus prevents ATP depletion systemically as a result of other toxic assaults including carcinogens, radiation, and various chronic conditions. So, all in all, the combination of L-PGA and vitamin B6 has been shown to prevent ATP depletion from a number of assaults that organisms encounter every day.
As if that was not good enough, Metadoxine is known as serotonin antagonist at the 5-HT2B receptor. This second effect is probably why it has shown beneficial results for liver fibrosis, secondary to alcohol consumption. Studies that have tried to elucidate the mechanism of antagonism point to L-PGA as the most likely active ingredient.
5-HT2B receptor - Wikipedia
"....Metadoxine: a 5ht2b antagonist and GABA-activity modulator [33]"

As you can see from the Wikipedia pages, Metadoxine is currently being evaluated for ADHD - a condition associated with dopamine deficiency and currently treated with dopaminergic stimulants like Ritalin and Adderall. Furthermore, studies are being conducted with Metadoxine for Fragile X syndrome, which is a subset of autism thought to be genetically driven. Given the role of dopamine deficiency in ADHD and serotonin excess (i.e. hence dopamine deficiency as well) in autism, I did some digging and it turns out that Metadoxine does indeed raise dopamine and lower serotonin (see study in the references section). Thus, the rational for including the ingredients of Metadoxine in our product are the prevention of ATP depletion by various assaults as well as its anti-serotonin and pro-dopamine effects.

Now, given that Metadoxine raises ATP levels by accelerating de-novo purine synthesis as well as the purine salvage pathway,its effects will be even more pronounced if there was enough raw material for ATP synthesis floating around. One such raw material is of course inosine, and that is why the product includes inosine as another ingredient. In addition to the studies I posted on inosine ameliorating fatty liver. I also posted about the ability of inosine to raise the NAD/NADH ratio, as well as increase mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative respiration, and lower lactate/NO/LPO. Yet another post showed that an immediate metabolite of inosine lowers both serotonin and cortisol synthesis.
Inosine Powerfully Stimulates Mitochondriogenesis, Oxidative Metabolism & Cell Differentiation
Inosine Increases NAD/NADH Ratio And Reduces Systemic Inflammation
Inosine As A Powerful Inhibitor Of Serotonin And Cortisol Synthesis

The benefits of inosine are numerous and it enjoys a widespread use in Europe as an immunostimulant, cardioprotector, anti-ischemic, anti-hypoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-anemic, anabolic, and in general actoprotector substance. I collected a decent number of studies on inosine in the references section below, but these are just scratching the surface. There are thousands of studies in Russian available through various Russian-labguage databases, and I can provide additional references for those who can read in Russian or are interested in messing around with Google Translate.

While reading all those studies on inosine going back to the early 1950s, I noticed that in Europe inosine is commonly administered in combination with succinic acid. In fact, there are several patented drugs containing inosine and succinic acid, the most famous ones being Cytoflavin and Reamberin (amber acid is the common name for succinate).
Cytoflavin generic. Price of cytoflavin. Uses, Indications and Description
Reamberin - Drugs.com

Succinic acid had been studied for even longer than inosine and it has a myriad of health effects, many of them overlapping with inosine. As a Krebs cycle intermediate, its main metabolic effect is the stimulation of the Krebs cycle activity as well as the flow of electrons along the electron transport chain (ETC). In fact, the enzyme that metabolizes succinic acid (Succinic Acid Dehydrogenase) is an enzyme that is part of both the Krebs cycle and ETC. The final effects of these stimulations is of course the increase in ATP synthesis. So, the presence of succinic acid in Cardenosine is due to its role as a stimulator (and an indirect source) of ATP synthesis.

Finally, a word on potential synergy of Cardenosine with some other chemicals. Succinic acid stimulates succinic dehydrogenase and the electrons succinic acid provide subsequently flow along the ETC, assuming the ETC is working properly. However, if somebody takes succinic acid and their ETC is not functioning well for some reason then there won't be as much boost in ATP synthesis, compared to if the ETC was operating well (and the electrons from succinic acid were able to flow to O2 at the end). One way to circumvent a malfunctioning ETC is using MB (e.g. Oxidal). It provides an alternative electron acceptor for that electron flow originating from succinic acid, and it has been shown to restore electron flow along the ETC in various pathologies. And in case of well-working ETC it can speed up ATP synthesis even more than succinic acid would on its own.
Another chemical that can speed up the process of succinic acid oxidation is riboflavin (e.g. Energin) as it is the precursor of FAD, and FAD is the cofactor for succinic dehydrogenase (which metabolizes succinic acid). In fact, the drug Cytoflavin I mentioned above, contains riboflavin for that very reason. The active form of riboflavin (R5P) would work even better. However, rifoblavin/R5P/FAD will not help in case of ETC damage/malfunction. It would only speed up the Krebs cycle side of the reaction.
Bypassing the compromised mitochondrial electron transport with methylene blue alleviates efavirenz/isoniazid-induced oxidant stress and mitochondria-mediated cell death in mouse hepatocytes - ScienceDirect
Mitochondrial pharmacology: Electron transport chain bypass as strategies to treat mitochondrial dysfunction
Alternative Mitochondrial Electron Transfer as a Novel Strategy for Neuroprotection

Finally, as mentioned at the beginning of the thread, a combination of Cardenosine and SolBan may be synergistic in providing benefits to optimal hair growth. The caffeine and niacinamide present in SolBan may actually increase the transdermal absorption of the ingredients of Cardenosine and thus help deliver pre-formed ATP (from Cardenosine) directly to the hair follicles.

That's pretty much it. The idea of Cardenosine is thus very simple - increase ATP levels by exploiting various pathways. Those pathways include providing ATP directly (duh), preventing its degradation (Metadoxine), or increasing its synthesis through the Krebs cycle / ETC (succinic acid) and through the purine salvage pathway (inosine). If somebody is aware of any other pathways to ATP please let me know. Maybe @Travis can shed some light??
As far as the name Cardenosine - it is just an old and forgotten name for ATP. It is the same idea as the name Calcirol we picked for the vitamin D3 supplement.

The units listed on the label are just for measurement purposes. They do not indicate suggested or optimal dose. Please note that similar to the products sold by companies like BluePeptides, this product is for lab/research use only. The product can be ordered from the link below:
www.idealabsdc.com/lab

*******************************************************************************
Cardenosine is a product with the main purpose of raising ATP levels in an organism. Besides raising ATP, the ingredients in Cardenosine have been studies separately over a period of several decades. Those ingredients and have been found to possess a number of desirable properties - including anti-inflammatory, anti-serotonin, pro-dopamine, anti-glucocorticoid, anti-inflammatory, anti-endotoxin, anti-viral, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, anxiolytic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, anti-ischemic, neuroprotective, and generally anti-aging.

Serving size: 40 drops
Servings per container: about 15
Each serving contains the following ingredients:

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): 200mg
Succinic acid: 200mg
L-Pyroglutamic acid: 200mg
Inosine: 100mg
Vitamin B6 (P5P): 10mg

Other ingredients: distilled water
*******************************************************************************

References:

ATP:
Anticancer activities of adenine nucleotides in tumor bearing hosts (very important!)
http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/jpet/294/1/126.full.pdf
A Single Dose Of Oral Atp Supplementation Improves Performance And Physiological Response During Lower Body Resistance Exercise In Recreational Res... - PubMed - NCBI
Oral Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) Administration Increases Postexercise ATP Levels, Muscle Excitability, and Athletic Performance Following a Re... - PubMed - NCBI
Treatment with Oral ATP decreases alternating hemiplegia of childhood with de novo ATP1A3 Mutation. - PubMed - NCBI
Oral adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans. - PubMed - NCBI
Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets. - PubMed - NCBI
Cardiovascular and pulmonary response to oral administration of ATP in rabbits. - PubMed - NCBI


L-Pyroglutamic acid:

1. Misc
[Reproductive toxicity of metadoxine in rats]. - PubMed - NCBI
Brain penetration of orally administered sodium pyroglutamate. - PubMed - NCBI
Neurotoxic effects of endogenous materials: quinolinic acid, L-pyroglutamic acid, and thyroid releasing hormone (TRH). - PubMed - NCBI
[Metadoxine in the treatment of vomiting in uremic patients under dialysis treatment]. - PubMed - NCBI
Pyroglutamate kinetics and neurotoxicity studies in mice. - PubMed - NCBI


2. Anti-cancer
Isolation of an anti-angiogenic substance from Agaricus blazei Murill: its antitumor and antimetastatic actions. - PubMed - NCBI


3. Insulin resistance / diabetes
Anti-diabetic effect of pyroglutamic acid in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats and KK-Ay mice. - PubMed - NCBI
Metadoxine, an ion-pair of pyridoxine and L-2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylate, blocks adipocyte differentiation in association with inhibition of the PKA... - PubMed - NCBI


4. Vision / eyes / retina
Pyroglutamic acid promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury. - PubMed - NCBI
Reduction of enhanced rabbit intraocular pressure by instillation of pyroglutamic acid eye drops. - PubMed - NCBI


5. Pro-dopamine / anti-prolactin
Effect of metadoxine on striatal dopamine levels in C57 black mice. - PubMed - NCBI
Isolation of pyroglutamic acid from hypothalamic tissue and significance of its inhibition of prolactin release. - PubMed - NCBI


6. Mood / Mental Health / Cognition
Pyroglutamic acid improves the age associated memory impairment. - PubMed - NCBI
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study evaluating the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of extended-release metadoxine ... - PubMed - NCBI
Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review. - PubMed - NCBI
Attention benefits after a single dose of metadoxine extended release in adults with predominantly inattentive ADHD. - PubMed - NCBI
Efficacy of metadoxine extended release in patients with predominantly inattentive subtype attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. - PubMed - NCBI
Capillary electrophoresis for caffeine and pyroglutamate determination in coffees study of the in vivo effect on learning and locomotor activity in... - PubMed - NCBI
Pyroglutamic acid improves learning and memory capacities in old rats. - PubMed - NCBI


7. Neuroprotective
[The central vascular and metabolic effects of pyroglutamic acid]. - PubMed - NCBI
Protection by pyroglutamic acid and some of its newly synthesized derivatives against glutamate-induced seizures in mice. - PubMed - NCBI
[Molecular mechanisms of pidolate magnesium action and its neurotropic affects]. - PubMed - NCBI
Effect of pyrrolidone-pyroglutamic acid composition on blood flow in rat middle cerebral artery. - PubMed - NCBI
[Correlations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a combined preparation containing pyrrolidone and pyroglutamic acid]. - PubMed - NCBI
Pyroglutamate stimulates Na+ -dependent glutamate transport across the blood-brain barrier. - PubMed - NCBI
[Neuroprotective and cerebrovascular effects of GABA mimetics]. - PubMed - NCBI
[Evolution of the neuroprotection concept]. - PubMed - NCBI
[Neuroprotective properties of pyroglutamic acid in combination with pyrrolidone]. - PubMed - NCBI
[Effect of a drug composition containing pyroglutamic acid and pyrrolidone on the cerebral circulation]. - PubMed - NCBI
L-pyroglutamic acid protects rat cortical neurons against sodium glutamate-induced injury. - PubMed - NCBI
Role of oxoproline in the regulation of neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier. - PubMed - NCBI
Investigations on the binding properties of the nootropic agent pyroglutamic acid. - PubMed - NCBI
Pyroglutamic acid administration modifies the electrocorticogram and increases the release of acetylcholine and GABA from the guinea-pig cerebral c... - PubMed - NCBI
Is glutamate a trigger factor in epileptic hyperactivity? - PubMed - NCBI


8. Anti-alcohol / liver health / hepatitis
Pyroglutamic acid stimulates DNA synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. - PubMed - NCBI
Identification of a hepatoprotective peptide in wheat gluten hydrolysate against D-galactosamine-induced acute hepatitis in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
Metadoxine improves the three- and six-month survival rates in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. - PubMed - NCBI
Metadoxine Versus Placebo for the Treatment of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. - PubMed - NCBI
Treatment with metadoxine and its impact on early mortality in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. - PubMed - NCBI
Preliminary findings on the use of metadoxine for the treatment of alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease. - PubMed - NCBI
[Capsule metadoxine in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study]. - PubMed - NCBI
Acute alcohol intoxication. - PubMed - NCBI
Combined metadoxine and garlic oil treatment efficaciously abrogates alcoholic steatosis and CYP2E1 induction in rat liver with restoration of AMPK... - PubMed - NCBI
A follow up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol dependence. - PubMed - NCBI
[The therapeutic effect of metadoxine on alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis]. - PubMed - NCBI
Metadoxine in the treatment of acute and chronic alcoholism: a review. - PubMed - NCBI
Fibrosis and glycogen stores depletion induced by prolonged biliary obstruction in the rat are ameliorated by metadoxine. - PubMed - NCBI
Metadoxine in acute alcohol intoxication: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. - PubMed - NCBI
Efficacy of metadoxine in the management of acute alcohol intoxication. - PubMed - NCBI
Metadoxine prevents damage produced by ethanol and acetaldehyde in hepatocyte and hepatic stellate cells in culture. - PubMed - NCBI
Treatment of alcoholic fatty liver: is the metabolic effect of metadoxine the only reason for improved liver function? - PubMed - NCBI
Long-term ethanol administration enhances age-dependent modulation of redox state in central and peripheral organs of rat: protection by metadoxine. - PubMed - NCBI
Metadoxine accelerates fatty liver recovery in alcoholic patients: results of a randomized double-blind, placebo-control trial. Spanish Group for t... - PubMed - NCBI
Effects of Metadoxine on cellular status of glutathione and of enzymatic defence system following acute ethanol intoxication in rats. - PubMed - NCBI
Effects of metadoxine on cellular formation of fatty acid ethyl esters in ethanol treated rats. - PubMed - NCBI
Changes in expression of the albumin, fibronectin and type I procollagen genes in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis: effect of pyridoxol L,2-pyrrolidon-5... - PubMed - NCBI
[Therapeutic use of metadoxine in chronic alcoholism. Double blind study of patients in a department of general medicine]. - PubMed - NCBI
Effects of metadoxine on cellular free fatty acid levels in ethanol treated rats. - PubMed - NCBI
Metadoxine (pyrrolidone carboxylate of pyridoxine) antagonizes the locomotor-stimulatory effect of ethanol in mice. - PubMed - NCBI
[Effects of metadoxine on main biohumoral changes induced by chronic alcoholism]. - PubMed - NCBI
Pyridoxol L,2-pyrrolidon-5 carboxylate prevents active fibroplasia in CCl4-treated rats. - PubMed - NCBI
Action of metadoxine on isolated human and rat alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Effect on enzymes in chronic ethanol-fed rats. - PubMed - NCBI
Alcoholic abstinence syndrome: short-term treatment with metadoxine. - PubMed - NCBI
[Metadoxine in alcohol-related pathology]. - PubMed - NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2972505
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3828134
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3539468
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7192694


Succinic Acid:

1. Misc.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14968174
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27141637
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25076754
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24555229
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25790698
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23457968
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27502960
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072777
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28974722
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14816255
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14137425
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3756230
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23901465

2. Cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29412795
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16746008


3. Reproductive/menopause
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23767097
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23323329
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27759458


4. ATP/Metabolism/insulin/diabetes/obesity
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29211771
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11109530
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10965352
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9580367
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8865105
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7857680
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3202180
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3571215
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3032929
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16315979
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17537413
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16910316
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16694665
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13525390
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13242564
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13898070
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7181923
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6289887
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7269512


5. GI/liver/digestion/endotoxin/Kidney
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9178284
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7944393
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15856914
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17855829
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18649657
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18055880
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23536947
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21516854
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20919557
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19529856
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27411015
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27030185
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26118088
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14771029
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7256925
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7364086
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/44392
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/730417


6. Neuroprotective/CNS
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15206559
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12910308
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12230956
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9027260
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7893078
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16242831
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15565840
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17523453
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17369903
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18856206
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25699017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23887452
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22665728
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22379879
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20517221
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26781419
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28432362
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13141885
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13119037
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14833533
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15393012
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18133082
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20247549
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20292325


7. Stress/Mood/Cognition
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3410024
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14561530
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26081324
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26016320
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25894772
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13458496
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13533639
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13288815
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1158629


8. Antibacterial/antiviral/antipathogen
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28635832
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14352463


9. Asthma/Allergies/histamine/inflammation/pulmonary
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10227065
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3325978
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13010407
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14926567
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14868262
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14852365
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18870246
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7375465


10. CVD/circulation/hypoxia
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9607905
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7819559
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19145322
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22866305
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21846056
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22420162
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19803215
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27475675
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4670508
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4076420
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1023969


11. Muscle/anabolism/ergogenic/actoprotective
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28944867
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7773089
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25016753
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6498320


11. Radiation/EMF
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2251365
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3495507


Inosine:

1. Misc.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11912550
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8940895
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26903141
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7079571
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/720586
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1583701


2. Cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8732102
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1963839
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3689353
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2423256


3. Reproductive/menopause
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15061652
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6654752


4. ATP/Metabolism/insulin/diabetes/obesity
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10917906
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10737175
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18562629
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2448739
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6198929
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/474465
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/186586
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/186035
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2650958
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2601579


5. GI/liver/digestion/endotoxin/Kidney
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14767733
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12947007
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12443716
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12388199
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10623851
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7909375
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16394918
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23660094
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23232950
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20868668
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19906119
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19375788
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19103461
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18643723
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16531145
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3663162
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7317735
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7233650
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6998075
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/534819
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/369092
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/55837
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3188198
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1350772


6. Neuroprotective/CNS
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16317421
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15976325
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15692110
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15026152
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15019271
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14744912
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12676349
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12440381
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12084941
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11930165
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10557347
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9691220
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9681443
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8863513
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28294142
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27497459
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27130268
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805433
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26529505
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365718
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25382017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24913204
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24502983
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24366103
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312612
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21643997
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21508223
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19553458
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17406376
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17293357
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16923353
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3924588
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2985162
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6264499
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6784145
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6275442
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6252561
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/37602
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/286337
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/284422
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2390879


7. Stress/Mood/Cognition
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28695335
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27966087
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24569499
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23613131
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3003762


8. Immunomodulation/Antibacterial/antiviral/antipathogen
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27821093
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358878
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16055398
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14978744
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8876359
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8788123
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1283173
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1384023
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476281
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26591662
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26011933
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2446760
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2429908
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24272839
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6209193
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1693173
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1693065
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2482585
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3150993
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1726683


9. Asthma/Allergies/histamine/pulmonary
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15579626
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11923614
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11712075
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11673212
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23355189
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456813
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20472668
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19174745


10. CVD/circulation/hypoxia
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8240456
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1462898
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21059208
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19902663
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16730445
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3503988
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3830217
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3737656
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3956572
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3591170
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3922025
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6705907
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6347379
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6888082
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6847795
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6368998
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7094228
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6889939
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7326684
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7449820
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7423093
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7377330
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7224845
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7370243
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/435683
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/445523
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/347135
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/910962
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28559
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1242314
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/125181
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2594615
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2923227
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3068401
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3355562
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3688262
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1711609
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1991356


11. Muscle/anabolism/ergogenic/actoprotective
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11469903
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26875616
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16643789


12. Radiation/EMF
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19280464
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179648
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16776063
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16669708
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2809455
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2685869
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1811724
 
Last edited:

haidut

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"Servings per container: about 15"

sounds a bit low. so once a week could work ?

Every other day, if you want it to last 30 days. For me at least, using every day at these doses was a bit too stimulating. I think the dopaminergic effects of pyroglutamic acid really build up if used every day. So, I thought it was a good compromise.
 

haidut

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Very cool. Perhaps the most generally beneficial mechanism of action.

Thanks. That is my hope. I don't think there is a cell in any tissue that cannot use a bit of help with ATP, especially when stress/assault of some kind.
 

haidut

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On the halloweenish picture on your site I read "serving size 40 drops".
Any comments on the difference of effects between this and MB?

Great catch! The correct dose is 40 drops, so the label is right. I updated the original thread description.
Oxidal complements this greatly! So, thanks so much for bringing this up. In fact, I will update the original thread and mention this.
The reason for synergy is that methylene blue (MB) helps the ETC function better if there is block anywhere in the stages I - IV. So, if somebody takes succinic acid and their ETC is not functioning well for some reason then there won't be as much boost as the ETC was operating well and the electrons from succinic acid were able to flow to O2 at the end. MB proides this alternative electron acceptor, which has been shown to restor electron flow along the ETC in case of damage. And in case of well working ETC it can speed it up even more.
Bypassing the compromised mitochondrial electron transport with methylene blue alleviates efavirenz/isoniazid-induced oxidant stress and mitochondria-mediated cell death in mouse hepatocytes - ScienceDirect
Mitochondrial pharmacology: Electron transport chain bypass as strategies to treat mitochondrial dysfunction
Alternative Mitochondrial Electron Transfer as a Novel Strategy for Neuroprotection

Another chemical that can speed up the process of succinic acid oxidation is riboflavin (e.g. Energin) as it is the precursor of FAD and FAD is the cofactor for succinic dehydrogenase which metabolizes succinic acid. In fact, riboflavin is present in the drug cytoflavin I mentioned above, for that very reason. The active form R5P would work even better. However, riboflavin/R5P/FAD will not help in case of ETC damage/malfunction. It would only speed up the Krebs cycle side of the reaction.
 
Last edited:

Tarmander

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Apr 30, 2015
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I love your creativity in these supplements man

Curious about a couple things:

The "glutamic" in pyroglutamic acid worries me a bit as any time I have taken glutamic acid I get super ADHD and depressed. Cannot handle MSG or anything like that. Is L-PGA similar to glutamic acid or different?

Can you outline what kind of effects you saw from your experimentation of this? Or the test group's experiences?

Also ,other then Inosine, will any of the ingredients raise Uric Acid? I don't think so, but want to make sure.

Thanks man!
 

brocktoon

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Apr 10, 2017
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Haidut, I'm wondering if, given the neuroprotective properties of this supplement, it might be of help systemically to those with Parkinson's, particularly if taken with Oxidal/MB?
 

mirc12354

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Jan 8, 2016
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so this is anti-hang-over product you were mentioning as well or will you release another product specific for that purpose??
 

Kunder

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Messages
141
I gotta ask...is this legal?

I’m assuming this isn’t FDA approved, in which case is it enough to just declare ‘for R&D purposes’ in the title, even though it’s clear and obvious from the accompanying marketing language that it is being recomended, marketed and distributed for general use as a supplement by whoever orders it? Is it really that easy to bypass the regulations?

I’m not questioning the effectiveness or safety of this thing, just the legality of making it and selling it.
 
Last edited:

Blossom

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I gotta ask...is this legal?

I’m assuming this isn’t FDA approved, in which case is it enough to just declare ‘for R&D purposes’ in the title, even though it’s clear and obvious from the accompanying marketing language that it is being recomended, marketed and distributed for general use as a supplement? Is it really that easy to bypass the regulations?

I’m not questioning the effectiveness or safety of this thing, just the legality of making it and selling it.
Research is perfectly legal. Thank goodness we are still able to do research.
 

Kunder

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So what you’re saying is that “research” *wink*, *wink* is perfectly legal?
 

LeeLemonoil

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According to a study perforemed by a major skincare and chemical-actives enterprise, at least in aged skin cells not ATP in itself is the major probelem, but mitochondrial Creatinkinase (mtCK).
I'll find the study meanwhil I'll losely translate the major bit:

In Skin cells of aged probands, function of mtCK is diminished and malfunctioning leading to less stimulation of mitochondrial OXPHOS,
Phospho-creatine pool maintenance is slowed down and local supply of PCr is insufficinet.
Cytosolic Creatinkinase is no longer bal to maintain and stabilize ATP-Concentration in that cells. Higher ADP-concentration leads to glycolysis to maintain ATP-concetration and functioning of local ATPasen.

The study further sais that ATP needs Creatinkinases to "leave" the mitochondria and be recycled from the cytosols?
Anybody ever thought about that angke.

The said PhD thesis is in german only, but the main synopsis is that things like Q10 and so forth are not significantly different in aging skin but for the insufficnnet couplin of Creatinkinase to mito ATP-synthesis - leading to many detrimental consequences in skin energy metabolism. (Not surprisingly, old skin cells use Glycolysis for ATP as said, wih a lot of lactate then damaging the skin)

Is this not of importance when supplementing ATP in therory? How to increase mtCK? Creatine? In the Diss at least they provide evidence for enrichng skincreams with Creatine
 

haidut

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I love your creativity in these supplements man

Curious about a couple things:

The "glutamic" in pyroglutamic acid worries me a bit as any time I have taken glutamic acid I get super ADHD and depressed. Cannot handle MSG or anything like that. Is L-PGA similar to glutamic acid or different?

Can you outline what kind of effects you saw from your experimentation of this? Or the test group's experiences?

Also ,other then Inosine, will any of the ingredients raise Uric Acid? I don't think so, but want to make sure.

Thanks man!

So, pyroglutamic acid actually has several names including 5-oxo-proline / 5-keto-proline. In other words, it is proline with an extra oxygen atom and Peat has written about the beneficial effects of proline along with those of glycine. I think the choice of name "pyroglutamic" is unfortunate as it confuses people. In reality, L-PGA seems to act like an antagonist to glutamate and seems to increase GABA signalling (where it is needed). The Wiki link in regards 5-HT2B antagonism mentions that. Another glutamate analog is the amino acid theanine and it is also known to antagonize glutamate and promote GABA.
Theanine - Wikipedia
Inosine may raise uric acid but human studies showed that only chronic daily doses of 3g or more led to elevations of uric acid beyond the acceptable range.
The only side effects I had when testing this was overstimulation and trouble sleeping, which is a known side effect of ATP administered through infusion. Hence, the design of the product to be used every other day instead of daily like the other products we have.
 

Tarmander

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Apr 30, 2015
Messages
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I gotta ask...is this legal?

I’m assuming this isn’t FDA approved, in which case is it enough to just declare ‘for R&D purposes’ in the title, even though it’s clear and obvious from the accompanying marketing language that it is being recomended, marketed and distributed for general use as a supplement by whoever orders it? Is it really that easy to bypass the regulations?

I’m not questioning the effectiveness or safety of this thing, just the legality of making it and selling it.

Why would this not be legal...you can get all these ingredients on Amazon if you wanted.
 

haidut

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@haidut exciting! any evidence for topical administration of inosine increasing its relatively short half life ?

Don't know if it would prolong half life, but it makes it better as an ATP precursor because it avoids the hydrolysis of inosine to hypoxanthine and ribose (which occurs in the GI tract).
 
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