Biotin Promotes Glycogen Synthesis

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by haidut, Oct 6, 2015.

  1. haidut

    haidut Member

    Joined:
    Mar 18, 2013
    Messages:
    16,457
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    USA / Europe
    I posted some studies on biotin, including its effects on blood lipids and insulin sensitivity. There have also been discussions on the forum about supplements or drugs that promote glycogen synthesis, since glycogen synthesis and levels are both low in hypothyroid people. In addition to the already discussed famotidine and uridine, now you can add biotin to the list of glycogen-promoting supplements. The doses used in the study were high, but not as high as the 300mg used in the recent and wildly successful human trial with multiple sclerosis (MS).
    The study is in Chinese so I can't get the full data but effective human equivalent doses were 0.08mg/kg, 0.42mg/kg, and 0.85mg/kg. I will ask the authors if the effects were dose-dependent.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25997216

    "...CONCLUSION: The possible mechanism of the decreasing biotin blood sugar in diabetic rats may by promoting the synthesis of glycogen and reducing gluconeogenesis."
     
  2. poilochio

    poilochio Member

    Joined:
    Aug 31, 2015
    Messages:
    109
    would this be also beneficial for a typ 1 diabetic?
     
  3. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

    Joined:
    Mar 18, 2013
    Messages:
    16,457
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    USA / Europe
    There are studies with type I diabetes, and biotin lowered blood glucose by about 40% more when combined with insulin compared to just insulin.
     
  4. poilochio

    poilochio Member

    Joined:
    Aug 31, 2015
    Messages:
    109
    oh wow nice :D .. ...thanks for all your work haidut
     
  5. lexis

    lexis Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2014
    Messages:
    413
    gluconeogenesis means breakdown of proteins to produce glucose?
     
  6. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

    Joined:
    Mar 18, 2013
    Messages:
    16,457
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    USA / Europe
    Yes, and it is a biomarker of stress as it means you are catabolizing muscle to make glucose. Biotin inhibits both gluconeogenesis and excessive glycolysis, as well lowering blood lipids like FFA and triglycerides. Truly marvelous vitamins, I think it's one of the most neglected. Combined with thiamine and niacinamide it restores glucose metabolism to normal even in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The only drawback is that it seems if you are diabetic you have to take it daily (orally) for years. I guess not a bad alternative compared to injecting yourself several times a day with insulin.
     
  7. poilochio

    poilochio Member

    Joined:
    Aug 31, 2015
    Messages:
    109

    ooh 100% better to pop a pill than to shoot insulin ....wont be missing the shots i can tell ya that :D :D
     
  8. johnwester130

    johnwester130 Member

    Joined:
    Aug 6, 2015
    Messages:
    2,122
  9. NathanK

    NathanK Member

    Joined:
    May 30, 2015
    Messages:
    590
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    Haidut, hypothetically, do you think smashing FFA with niacinamide, aspirin, and biotin with the added effect of suppressing gluconeogenisis on a calorie restricted diet holds potential for losing fat and fat only? IOW, this would force adipose to oxidize and allow you to preserve muscle
     
  10. Ella

    Ella Member

    Joined:
    Oct 6, 2012
    Messages:
    601
    Haidut, I have been thinking about, trying to get my head around biotin and hypoglyceamic (low blood sugar drops). Peat advocates preventing low blood sugar at all costs in an effort to reduce the stress hormone activation. In reading the following paper Treatment with biotin increases insulin secretion in normal and hyperglycemic animals

    From what I understand, biotin supplementation may be justified in a hyperglyceamic state but contraindicative for persistant hypoglyceamic episoles. Many individuals that are coming off VLCD, low calorie and other resistrictive diets, have problems with hypoglyceamic due to hyperinsulemia. This is also a common symptom in PCOS. I am not convinced that biotin supplementation is going to be beneficial for these individuals, as biotin will further lower blood glucose levels. The aims of including more fruit rather than starch (glucose) is that reduced insulin is required. From RP article Glycemia, startch, and sugar in context: Starch and glucose efficiently stimulate insulin secretion, and that accelerates the disposition of glucose, activating its conversion to glycogen and fat, as well as its oxidation. Fructose inhibits the stimulation of insulin by glucose, so this means that eating ordinary sugar, sucrose (a disaccharide, consisting of glucose and fructose), in place of starch, will reduce the tendency to store fat.

    Would not biotin if it has the ability to powerfully stimulate insulin be classed in the same category as starch and protein. The researchers investigated biotin’s effects on the islets of Langerhans, pancreatic cells that regulate blood glucose levels by controlling insulin secretion in both humans and rats. Beta cell glucokinase is responsible for controlling insulin secretion in response to changes in blood glucose levels in the beta cells. In cultured rat islet cells, biotin increased glucokinase activity by as much as 143%, whereas in biotin-deficient rats, glucokinase activity in the islets was reduced by 50%. Treatment with biotin for 24 hours increased insulin secretion in both normal and hyperglycemic animals. Human trials generated equally promising results. One group of Type I patients who received 16 mg/day of biotin for one week experienced reduced levels of blood sugar. In Type II subjects, elevated fasting blood glucose levels plummeted by approximately 45% after one month treatment with oral doses of 9 mg/day of biotin.

    If biotin powerfully stimulates insulin, then can we expect that it will also enable more efficient fat storage. Insulin is able to efficiently convert glucose to glycogen and fat. So if we are hyperinsulemic, shouldn't we aim at inhibiting further stimulation of insulin, if we are looking to to resolve hypoglycemia and lose weight?

    I welcome and would be grateful for insight how the mechanism would differ from starch and glucose. :blondemoment
     
  11. lexis

    lexis Member

    Joined:
    Jan 25, 2014
    Messages:
    413
    The increased CO2 from biotin may help pancreas regeneration.It can also help people with movement disorders. CO2 repairs the myelin sheath
     
  12. Ella

    Ella Member

    Joined:
    Oct 6, 2012
    Messages:
    601
    RP from same article above: Rather than the sustained hyperglycemia which is measured for determining the glycemic index, I think the “diabetogenic” or “carcinogenic” action of starch has to do with the stress reaction that follows the intense stimulation of insulin release. This is most easily seen after a large amount of protein is eaten. Insulin is secreted in response to the amino acids, and besides stimulating cells to take up the amino acids and convert them into protein, the insulin also lowers the blood sugar. This decrease in blood sugar stimulates the formation of many hormones, including cortisol, and under the influence of cortisol both sugar and fat are produced by the breakdown of proteins, including those already forming the tissues of the body. At the same time, adrenalin and several other hormones are causing free fatty acids to appear in the blood.

    Ella: How is the mechanism where biotin stimulates insulin differ from the "diabetogenic" or "carcinogenic" action of starch?

    RP continues: Since the work of Cushing and Houssay, it has been understood that blood sugar is controlled by antagonistic hormones: Remove the pituitary along with the pancreas, and the lack of insulin doesn't cause hyperglycemia. If something increases cortisol a little, the body can maintain normal blood sugar by secreting more insulin, but that tends to increase cortisol production. A certain degree of glycemia is produced by a particular balance between opposing hormones.

    Ella: Ray is saying that just a little increase in insulin will increase cortisol production which triggers the breakdown or protein to increase blood glucose. If there is no insulin then there is no hyperglycemia. How does the biotin mechanism that stimulates pancreatic beta cell glucokinase to increase insulin differ, wouldn't stimulation via biotin also trigger an increase in cortisol production? So it is not lack of insulin but lack of opposing hormones

    RP: Tryptophan, from dietary protein or from the catabolism of muscles, is turned into serotonin which activates the pituitary stress hormones, increasing cortisol, and intensifying catabolism, which releases more tryptophan. It suppresses thyroid function, which leads to an increased need for the stress hormones. Serotonin impairs glucose oxidation, and contributes to many of the problems associated with diabetes.

    Ella: It seems a never ending vicious cycle which gelatin (devoid of trytophan) or sucrose can break. So if one was advised to supplement with biotin and experiencing hypoglycemia, would it be best not to supplement?
     
  13. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

    Joined:
    Mar 18, 2013
    Messages:
    16,457
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    USA / Europe
    Some of the studies with high doses of biotin (i.e. human equivalent of about 100mg) found exactly that - loss of body fat. If biotin lowers triglycerides, FFA and cholesterol then it is a sign of increased fat disposal. Those trigs, FFA and cholesterol were not shuttled back to the liver so they mush have been oxidized or glucuronidated and excreted. I think biotin can work even without niacinamide but combining them prevents the wasteful conversion of carbs into fat due to the effects of niacinamide.
     
  14. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

    Joined:
    Mar 18, 2013
    Messages:
    16,457
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    USA / Europe
    The blood-glucose lowering effects of biotin are not only related to increasing insulin secretion. In fact, like Ray said, insulin plays a relatively minor role in glucose control, with potassium being a much bigger factor. Biotin stimulates pyruvate carboxylase and as such promotes the oxidation of pyruvate produced during glycolysis and reduces lactate. So, in many cases, the elevated blood glucose levels are due to the cells being stuck in excessive glycolysis or are prevented from oxidizinig glucose due to high FFA. In glycolysis, the generated pyruvate is not being able to continue to the Krebs cycle. Biotin restarts the Krebs cycle and makes it use the pyruvate from glycolysis. So, the enhanced oxidation of glucose combined with the lowering of FFA is the main mechanism of biotin's glucose lowering effects. I guess it has insulin promoting effects as well, but the human studies I looked at showed that with chronic treatment it actually lowered hyperinsulinemia. This is not surprising, as by improving the oxidation of glucose there is no hyperglycemia and no need for all that insulin.
     
  15. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

    Joined:
    Mar 18, 2013
    Messages:
    16,457
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    USA / Europe
    I posted this thread on biotin as a possible supplement for people with hyperglycemia. In hypoglycemia biotin may help or it may make things worse. depending on the cause. Hypoglycemia is typically a result of diabetes but there are other causes as well. As Broda Barnes said in his book "Hypoglycemia: It's not your brain, it's your liver" the cases of non-diabetic hypoglycemia can be traced to only a few causes. These causes are liver disease, pancreas disease, adrenal disease, or a genetic defect in one of the enzymes responsible for glycogen synthesis. If you are hypoglycemic one or more of the following are happening. Liver disease, especially steatosis and fibrosis makes the liver unable to properly perform glucogeogenesis. Thus, when blood glucose levels drop and cortisol rises this does not result in sufficient glucose production. A milder version of this is NAFLD, where the liver is not able to store enough glycogen, so when blood sugar drops it cannot supply glycogen. However, in this latter case you are likely to see hyperglycemia since in people with poor glycogen storage ability, cortisol will be high and will keep the blood glucose elevated. Another scenario could be when liver is working fine but a person has adrenal failure like Addison disease, so when blood glucose falls the person is not able to produce enough cortisol to get amino acids to the liver. In fact, lowering blood glucose through insulin injection is one of the tests for Addison. Another scenario is the so-called insulinoma - a pancreatic tumor producing too much insulin. The genetic defects in glycogen synthesis are very rare so I am not going to go in details on them.
    So, if you have persistent hypoglycemia, I would look into those possible causes before considering biotin. Biotin is better suited for cases of hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance and poor glycogen storage abilities, or cases of excessive glycolysis.
     
  16. Ella

    Ella Member

    Joined:
    Oct 6, 2012
    Messages:
    601
    Haidut as usual, thank you for that detailed and succinct explanation on the various causes of hypoglycemia. I am currently having an argument with an integrative alternative MD whose focus is methylation. My background is molecular biology and it was only through Peat that I backed away from the genecentric view of disease. My daughter only 20 yrs old experiences hypoglycemia. Yes she is under a lot of stress due to university studies and has low T3. So I think it is too much stress impacting on her adrenals and liver is stressed. Not enough stored glycogen due to erractic eating - not enough calories, too much exercise etc, etc. High cortisol, high estrogen, high progesterone, high testosterone all PCOS symptoms. The MD has advised compounded mixture which includes biotin along with methionine and other vitamins that I have objected to. She has sluggish phase 2 liver detoxification enzymes but no problems with her phase 1 enzymes and so is able to tolerate coffee really well. She can't live without her coffee but it is a problem due to backup of metabolites from Phase 1 detox pathway.
     
  17. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

    Joined:
    Mar 18, 2013
    Messages:
    16,457
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    USA / Europe
    So, it looks like a combination of stress and sluggish liver. No wonder she likes her coffee. Are you saying her cortisol is high, as well as estrogen and progesterone?
     
  18. Ella

    Ella Member

    Joined:
    Oct 6, 2012
    Messages:
    601
    Yeap, I made the mistake of giving her progesterone once and she turned into a pyscho b****. Lesson No.1 don't naturally assume that progesterone is the answer to every woman's problems. I had her hormones tested and she was high in all the hormones, cortisol, testosterone, estrogen, DHEA, and sky high progesterone. I have been working on her liver, in clearing these hormones out of the system but difficult with university exam pressures. I think the gym workouts lifting weights was contributing to high testosterone levels. She's doing lots of grated carrots, gelatine and she has cut down on a lot of the fats which I think is helping. I wish I knew how to interpret the hormone results better. I think Peat said that if estrogen is high outside the cell (salivary) then estrogen is low inside the cell. So should I be worrying about the high estrogen results?
     
  19. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

    Joined:
    Mar 18, 2013
    Messages:
    16,457
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    USA / Europe
    I would check prolactin and estrone. These two are much better surrogates of estrogenicity than the typical blood test for estrogens.
     
  20. Peata

    Peata Member

    Joined:
    Jun 12, 2013
    Messages:
    3,400
    Gender:
    Female
    I have pcos too. Any progress w your daughter, Ella?
     
Loading...