Ray Peat Email Advice Depository

metabolizm

Member
Joined
Nov 30, 2019
Messages
550
I asked Ray to recommend some good alternative news sources:

"The extremes usually pick up things that are suppressed, more general sites are consortium news. unz review, global research, corbett report, counterpunch."
 

Beastmode

Member
Joined
Feb 7, 2017
Messages
681
QUESTION ABOUT PEPTIDES

ME:
Have you used any specific ones with promising results?

It seems to be popular amongst certain biohacker circles more and more.

RAY:
Currently popular peptides have produced amazing results for the people who sell it. I think most of them are either useless or dangerous.
 

gaze

Member
Joined
Jun 13, 2019
Messages
1,541
Me: If you were in your 20s today, would you still go to college and receive a phd in biology like you did? Do you have any career advice given that the majority of "normal" jobs are mechanistic, lifeless, stressful, and suppressing?

Ray:
Between 1959 and 1968, my master’s degree made it possible to get teaching jobs. In 1972, the year I got my PhD, Nixon impounded science research money, and university jobs suddenly weren’t available. When I applied to junior colleges, I found that most of them had obligatory pay scales, causing them to prefer people with only master’s degrees. When I started the biology PhD program, I had saved $2000, which was enough for tuition and living expenses for 2 years, then I got teaching and research assistantships for the next two years, so I finished without debts. I started teaching some adult education courses and giving talks while writing books. Lewis Powell’s 1971 Memorandum to the US Chamber of Commerce probably precipitated the anti-science, anti-culture, anti-education movement that led to Nixon’s impoundment of funds (after the research had been approved and the money assigned), and the following policy of austerity to leave more funds for militarism. Students responded to the rising costs by studying business instead of liberal arts. I suppose most university libraries were similar to the Univ. of Oregon’s, cancelling subscriptions to all of their most interesting journals, keeping the ideologically safe ones. Universities aren’t as interesting as they used to be; I don’t know of any graduate programs I would want to bother with.
Einstein referred to his 7 years of work at the patent office as his “cobbler’s trade” that every creative perosn should have. The physicist Ernest Sternglass, who was doing technical work at the time, quoted from a long talk he had with Einstein in 1947:

"Tell me," he said, "Are you planning to go back to school?"
"Yes, I'm thinking about it."
"Don't go back to school. They will try to crush every bit of originality out of you. Don't go back to graduate school."
"Well, I--"
"Be careful. There will be enormous pressures to conform."
And then he told me about his own life and the mistakes he had made. "Don't do what I've done," he said. "Always have
a cobbler's job. Always have a job where you can get up in the morning, face yourself, that you're doing something useful
for humanity. Because nobody can be a genius every day. Don't make that kind of mistake. You know, when I accepted a
job at the University of Berlin, I had no duties really. Nothing to do except wake up and solve all the problems of the
universe every morning. Nobody can do that. Don't make that mistake.".

The situation now is incomparably worse than in 1947. Over-specialization reflects the increasingly authoritarian culture. Over the years I’ve taught a great variety of college courses (anthropology, linguistics, biochemistry, physics for biology majors, immunology, philosophy, educational psychology, painting, etc.), and in some of them I found that an honest look at the subject matter aroused intense political reactions. If you can earn even a meagre income doing something that’s immediately useful, the political reactions against your ideas will be less dangerous, but conditions are changing, making it harder to avoid the pressures to conform."
 

5a-DHP

Member
Joined
Jun 23, 2020
Messages
183
I asked Ray what he personally would have done had he developed rapid, early-onset male pattern baldness. I also asked if he thought it possible to restore hair back the juvenile state (dense NW1).

Ray:

My first step would be to thoroughly investigate TSH, temperature, vitamin D, and calcium. No, everything is always changing, reflecting your whole situation. Developing baldness is a warning sign of basic metabolic problems, tending toward general circulatory disease.
 

Miso

Member
Joined
Jan 27, 2016
Messages
21
In your book Generative Energy, you note how artificial sleep can be useful as restorative therapy for old or sick organisms.
Are there any substances or activities that can help induce deep sleep when temporarily unable to do so naturally?
RP:
"Thyroid hormone, vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium are among the natural things that make normal relaxation and deep restorative sleep possible. Sleep studies on hypothyroid people showed that they weren’t able to get beyond superficial sleep during the whole night—no deep restorative sleep at all."
 

Miso

Member
Joined
Jan 27, 2016
Messages
21
When looking to increase bowel transit, is the use of pure cellulose (usually derived from trees) or wheat bran good choices of insoluble fiber?

RP:
"Washed wheat bran is usually safe and effective."
 

Bart1

Member
Joined
May 21, 2018
Messages
347
an email I send about MB:


Hello Dr Peat,

I was hoping you would be able to answer this question regarding methylene blue.

Would methylene blue be dangerous or beneficial in an iron overload state ?

Dr Peat: Like ascorbic acid, it can reduce ferric iron to the ferrous form, which creates the most toxic free radicals.
 

Pryjmak

New Member
Joined
Oct 12, 2019
Messages
3
Me: My symptoms now are low temperature (a bit below 36 C in the morning) and I can store glycogen for no more than 2 hours, so I have to eat often. Regardless how much thyroid I am taking, these symptoms have been presenting. ....

RP: [Mar 5, 2020]
Are you sure that the kind of thyroid you’re using is effective? Many products on the market don’t have the full potency. Have you seen an increase in your pulse rate or tempeature, or appetite, or other change after starting the thyroid? Are you getting enough protein and calcium in your diet? Those help to regulate temperature and metabolic rate.

Me: I am taking Cynoplus / Cynomel. Right now 2/3 of Cynoplus and 3/5 of Cynomel per day. The max I was taking was the whole Cynoplus tablet.
36.9 C was the max I've noticed during a day, but in the morning, never above 36.0.. 35.9 even. Pulse rate was about 76 in the morning when I was taking 1 Cynoplus table (like 2 weeks ago). I haven't been measuring it lately. Before I started thyroid in the last summer it was about 60 beats.
My diet is pretty simple. During the day I drink about 4 L of Milk, plus 150 g of additional sugar, plus some salt. And one egg yolk. So it's above 3000 kcal in my calculation. I think earlier, it was less then that.
Also occasional liver (4 oz per 1-3 weeks) and low fat fish (like one fish per 2 week.. probably not enough of this one, so I may be not getting enough selenium).

RP: [Mar 9, 2020]
Do you drink orange juice or have other fruit? [No]

Me: What are essential or useful nutrients other than sugar, minerals and vitamin C, good fruits can provide?

RP: [Mar 27, 2020]
I think the flavonoids are very beneficial, though not technically essential. They provide some essential amino acids too.

Me: The fruits are good (better than bread, for example) for stabilizing blood sugar because of minerals and sugar, and good balance of these two?

RP: [Mar 29, 2020]
If the fruits are well chosen, for ripeness, digestibility, etc.

Me: Several replies above, you recommended me to have some fruits in diet. I understand that most of the nutrients they provide are beneficial anyway, but since I can't have them at this point, is there something in particular that can make the biggest difference that I can try to find in another source?

RP: [Mar 30, 2020]
I just add a little sugar to milk, with a little coffee, when I can’t get fruit.

Me: Do you think rosehip broth would be good for vitamin C? Is it safe to have every day?

RP: [Mar 31, 2020]
If you don’t have an allergy to it it’s o.k., but all foods except grains, nuts, and refined sugar contain adequate vitamin C.

Me: I've got unrefined salt from the so -called 'Pink Lake' in Ukraine. It's kind of similar to Dead Sea. Is that salt likely to supply an adequate amount of trace minerals if use let's say teaspoon per day?
Here is a link, in case you'd be more interested: Henyches'ke Lake

RP: [Apr 1, 2020]
The pink color is likely to be from iron, and that could be associated with toxic minerals. I doubt that it would be a safe source of the essential trace minerals.

Me: The salt is quite pink in the beginning. The woman I bought the salt from told me that the salt is wet and bitter, and not suitable for food yet, because it contains too much magnesium. She told me to dry it in the sun for a day and it's gonna become much paler, almost white, and that happened. It also tastes differently, much softer afterwards.

RP: [Apr 5, 2020]
Magnesium is good, but I think the pink is likely to mean that it contains iron; a little is o.k., but it can react in the stomach with vitamins such as C.

Me: If I would dissolve the salt in water and let the solution stay for a while (like night), would the iron likely settle to the bottom?

RP: [Apr 5, 2020]
I don’t think so.

Me: I've found some information about what makes pink salt, from a very similar australian lake, pink. Here are few links, if you'd like to know:
How an Australian lake turned bubble-gum pink - Australian Geographic
Do you think it is worth worrying about possible impurities in regular sea salt (like plastic)? In other words, is sea salt safe in general?

RP: [Apr 8, 2020]
Sea salt is usually made in steps, with sodium chloride separating first, making it the cleanest. If it’s grey, it’s because of clay, which isn’t as risky as the more complex lake bed salts.

Me: I know you recommend shellfish as being the best for trace minerals. You also mentioned sea fish. If I can have only the fish now, what do you think might be a minimum amount needed to ensure having enough of the trace minerals? Minimum, because I don't want to use too much protein, since I'm hypothyroid yet and already having plenty from milk. The meat of the fish is white; the fish is without head and about 200 g on average.

RP: [Apr 9, 2020]
I think a weekly serving of about 120 grams is enough.

Me: Is it o.k. to dissolve Cynoplus or Cynomel in hot water?

RP: [Apr 10, 2020]
The hormone isn’t soluble in water.

Me: Hello Dr. Peat. Wanna ask you - how would I cook my calf liver not using a pan and oil, but just water, while saving most nutrients?

RP: [Sep 13, 2020]
Quickly cooked liver has the best flavor, so dropping thin slices into boiling water for just about 30 seconds, or until the blood coagulates, would be best.

Me: Would it be o.k. to do this in the microwave?

RP: [Sep 15, 2020]
That should work.

Me: Are tomatoes any good?

RP: [Sep 22, 2020]
In moderate amounts they are good unless you’re allergic to them; in excess, the carotene-related pigments can disturb the hormones.

Me: I'd like to know a bit more about this, Dr. Peat, so have a couple more questions. Can other carotenoids go in the way of vitamin A functions themselves or they have to be converted to carotene first?

RP: [Sep 23, 2020]
We don’t convert lycopene, but alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin are converted to vitamin A.

Me: Did you mention alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin as related to tomatoes, or those are only carotenoids we can convert to vitamin A?

RP: [Sep 24, 2020]
One other can be converted to vitamin A--gamma-carotene.

Me: And those are the ones that can cause problems as I understand. Are you aware of any other fruits that contain the carotenoids in quantities that can be risky?
And for now, thank you very much!

RP: [Sep 25, 2020]
Cooked carrots or the juice, tomatoes, and orange or red sweet potatoes in large quantities are commonly problems in hypothyroid people, or in vegans who lack vitamin B12.

Me: Hello Ray. In one of your interviews you said that after about 2 years of a changed diet you could correct the age associated decline of thyroid function by supplements.
If the previous diet was really high in PUFA, what should be realistic expectations during the first years after the diet? Would it be hard or even possible to make the thyroid supplements work?

RP: [Oct 8, 2020]
The balance of T4 and T3 and the total dose have to be adjusted often at the beginning.

Me: Hi, Mr. Peat. Hope you're doing good. I have a quick question - if coconut oil solidifies well and evenly in a refrigerator from a heated state should I consider it as reliable or it's not enough and still might be adulterated?

RP: [Dec 21, 2020]
If it stays solid at 75 degrees F it contains mainly the natural mixture of oils.

Me: Hello, Dr. Peat. My dentist prescribed me a tooth gel for temporary use. But my concern is that it contains 0.2% w/w (900ppm) of Sodium Fluoride and has to be kept on teeth for 30 minutes. Is that enough to be toxic? Should I be concerned?

RP: [Jan 8, 2021]
It shouldn’t be allowed to touch the gums or tongue.

Me: For the last 6 (or more) months I've been experiencing symptoms coming from intestinal bacteria. The symptoms visibly increase right away after drinking boiled milk. I've been using tetracycline symptomatically to keep the bacteria from big overgrowth, otherwise the symptoms become very intense with time; if I would use 100 mg every day consistently, after about 2 - 3 weeks the bacteria would be gone and so symptoms, but after a while they would come back because of milk (I can't quit drinking milk; cheese from it doesn't seems to cause problems). I boil raw milk in amounts of about 2.5 L and try to cool it as quickly as I can (15 - 30 minutes to room temperature or below). The milk has a strong specific smell after boiling, which increases with time as well as the negative effect from milk, especially if it stays warm for longer. My urine has the exact same smell. I recently started removing most fat from milk before boiling and the milk seems to improve very much, I don't even sense the smell anymore, but I don't know yet what effect it will have on the bacterial overgrowth in the longer term.
Don't you mind giving me your opinion on what is going on? Thank you!

RP: [Feb 16, 2021]
The quick reaction suggests that the bacteria are in your small intestine, and that usually happens when the digestive processes are very slow and weak because of hypothyroidism. Have you been checking your temperature? Have you tried milk from different dairies? Contaminated pastures can give milk very bad flavors.
 

Pryjmak

New Member
Joined
Oct 12, 2019
Messages
3
Me: I eat low fat fish (Hake) for trace minerals, but I couldn't find how much copper it has. According to the USDA liver has about 14 mg of Copper per 100 g (about how much I consume per week). Is it enough? Or would it be good to have additional source?

RP: [Nov 18, 2019]
Liver can supply enough calcium [with "copper" in mind], sea food is more reliable for selenium.

Me: On your website in the article 'Iron's Dangers' you mentioned the benefits of blood donation. ...

RP: [Nov 20, 2019]
I think it’s better to adjust the diet (instead of removing blood) so that it contains only the amount of iron needed, and it happens that this is an economical diet, with most of the protein coming from milk or cheese, and using eggs to supply most of the iron needed.

Me: To clarify this, if a person has high iron stores it would not be a good idea to remove blood even every two month? (and just focus on diet?)

RP: [Nov 21, 2019]
If the health is otherwise good, donating blood to reduce iron overload is effective.


Please, post your exchanges!
 

Vileplume

Member
Joined
Jun 10, 2020
Messages
402
Me: If you were to teach literature to teenagers, how would you facilitate their reading and learning? What might a lesson look like?

Ray: Choosing things that interest them. Going over short excerpts in class, showing that different ways of using language are important for everything. Finding things in “classic” authors that can be criticized and lampooned, taking literature out of its museum atmosphere.

(He's the best)
 

Miso

Member
Joined
Jan 27, 2016
Messages
21
Me: Which of the vaccine platforms do you believe is potentially the least harmful choice?

RP: Participating in experimental testing necessarily involves unknown risks. The beliefs held by the manufacturers and the regulators have so little basis in science I don’t see any reason for preferring one without prolonged honest testing. The evidence of the dangers of the aluminum adjuvant is clear because it has been used for a long time, but the new lipid adjuvants just haven’t been studied enough for a comparison.

Me: Besides Vitamin D, is there any validity on use of immune modulators like Lactoferrin and Beta Glucans to help normalize immune response against viruses?

RP: I think adequate vitamin D, calcium, and minimizing inflammation is best. An inflamed digestive system, sluggish digestion, is a very important factor in viral susceptibility.
 

Ponylover

Member
Joined
Apr 2, 2019
Messages
7
Me: Do you think some people could be sensitive to the carotenes in orange juice? Could the carotenes in orange juice and carrot be keeping people in a hypothyroid state despite doing them everything else right?

Peat: The content in oranges is so low I don’t think even a gallon a day would affect the thyroid, but a glass or two of carrot juice definitely can.

Me: What are your thoughts on taking enzymes like serrapeptase?

Peat: Could cause unwanted internal bleeding.

Me: What is the minimum amount of fat that you would recommend for a young woman?

Peat: The amount in 1% milk, eggs, some lean meat and cheese, is more than enough. When there’s enough milk in the diet, the metabolic rate can tolerate more fat without gaining body fat.

Me: I am thinking about using herbs to get rid of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and leaky gut symptoms. Are these safe? What are your opinions?

Peat: I think the risk of allergic reaction balances any benefit from a germicidal effect.

Me: What do you think of the traditional Mongolian diet? It is heavily based on dairy and often includes animal organs. Vegetables are very limited.

Peat: Milk compensates for the lack of vegetables.

Me: What are your thoughts on high dose thiamine therapy? HIGH-D0SE THIAMINE (HDT) THERAPY for Parkinson's Disease

Peat: I think it’s appropriate to keep investigating its use in serious conditions such as Parkinson’s.

Me: [I asked him about impacted wisdom teeth]

Peat: My impacted lower wisdom teeth rotated into position in about three weeks when I took a little DHEA. Several people have told me of similar experiences.

Me: [Asked him about safety of Botox and a Botox injectionist's website]

Peat: Not at all, her website is toxic. Botox damages the brain.

Me: [asked him about chronic muscle knots]

Peat: Hypothyroidism and excess parathyroid hormone are the main causes. Deficiencies of vitamin D, vitamin K, and magnesium are other common causes.

Me: [asked him about a good diet for my dog]

Peat:
I think meat, fish, cottage cheese, eggs, well cooked potatoes, squash, and fruit are safe, same as for people. Losartan protects eyes, as well as lungs and other tissues.

PLoS One. 2015; 10(10): e0141137.
Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma
Harry A. Quigley,# 1 ,* Ian F. Pitha, 1 Derek S. Welsbie,# 1 Cathy Nguyen, 1 Matthew R. Steinhart, 1 Thao D. Nguyen, 2 Mary Ellen Pease, 1 Ericka N. Oglesby, 1 Cynthia A. Berlinicke, 1 Katherine L. Mitchell, 1 Jessica Kim, 1 Joan J. Jefferys, 1 and Elizabeth C. Kimball# 1
Marta Agudo-Barriuso, Editor

Purpose

To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in mice.

Methods

We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry.

Results

Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13), while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p < 0.0001). The lower RGC loss with losartan was significantly less than the loss with spironolactone or enalapril (regression model p = 0.001; drug treatment group term p = 0.01). Both losartan and enalapril significantly lowered blood pressure (p< 0.001), but losartan was protective, while enalapril led to worse than water-treated RGC loss. RGC loss after crush injury was unaffected by losartan treatment (difference from control p = 0.9). Survival of RGC in cell culture was not prolonged by sartan treatment. Axonal transport blockade after 3 day IOP elevations was less in losartan-treated than in control glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007). Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP.

Conclusions

The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at the optic nerve head.

Go to:
Introduction
Glaucoma is the most common preventable cause of blindness worldwide [1], and its damaging effects are known to be mediated through alterations at the optic nerve head (ONH) produced by the action intraocular pressure (IOP) [2,3]. Engineering models of ocular tissues that describe IOP-induced effects show that peripapillary sclera (PPS) behavior is important in determining the effect of IOP on the ONH [4,5,6]. Risk factors for human glaucoma include features related to scleral anatomy or physiology, including axial myopia, corneal hysteresis, and corneal thickness [7]. In human glaucoma eyes the sclera is stiffer by in vivo indirect measurement [8] and by in vitro inflation testing [9], and undergoes alterations in PPS collagen fiber orientation [10].

The sclera is substantially altered in experimental glaucoma in mice [11] including axial elongation, increase in stiffness on inflation testing [12], loss of non-fibrillar matrix [13] thickening and reorientation of collagenous fiber layers, decreased scleral permeability [14], increased scleral fibroblast activity and division, and increase in integrin-linked and actin-cytoskeletal signaling by proteomic analysis [15]. Alterations in PPS affect susceptibility to experimental glaucoma damage. Mice with a mutated connective tissue gene for collagen 8α2 have larger eyes, with stiffer sclera at baseline and they resist glaucoma injury more than do wild type C57BL/6 mice [16]. Increased scleral cross-linking by application of glyceraldehyde led to increased retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in experimental mouse glaucoma [17]. It is therefore likely that both the baseline state of the sclera and its dynamic alteration could affect the manner in which IOP is translated into a damaging stimulus in glaucoma.

The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathways are activated in experimental and human glaucoma in trabecular meshwork [18] and ONH [19,20]. Proteomic analysis of sclera in mice with experimental glaucoma show >2-fold increases in thrombospondins 1 and 4, known activators of TGFβ [15]. The selective angiotensin 1 receptor (AT1R) inhibitor, losartan, suppresses Smad2 phosphorylation and TGFβ expression in its canonical pathway, as well as inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related (ERK) in a parallel pathway. Blockade of AT1Rs increases AT2R activation, reducing TGFβ stimulation [21]. Overactivity of TGFβ in the Marfan syndrome leads to aortic dissection [22,23], and selective AT1R inhibition by losartan is beneficial in mouse Marfan models and has entered clinical trials [24]. Candesartan, an AT1R inhibitor, was reported to decrease RGC loss in experimental rat glaucoma with oral dosing [25], no detailed studies were performed in that report to show the mechanism by which the drug acted.

We hypothesize that losartan-induced inhibition of TGFβ signaling in a mouse model of glaucoma would alter RGC survival by modifying the scleral response to chronically elevated IOP. Potential therapeutic alterations of the sclera could supplement IOP-lowering therapy in human glaucoma by reducing IOP-generated stress at the ONH [26].

Me: What are your thoughts about yoga and meditation?

Peat: Best when incorporated into regular activities.

Me: [asked him about headaches that occur when backbending]

Peat: Bacterial endotoxin creates a chronic inflammation and leakiness of blood vessels, reducing stress tolerance.

Me: [asked him what he thought would be a good career today]

Peat: Teaching can be interesting as well as inoffensive.
 

Regina

Member
Joined
Aug 17, 2016
Messages
3,347
Location
Chicago
Me: Do you think some people could be sensitive to the carotenes in orange juice? Could the carotenes in orange juice and carrot be keeping people in a hypothyroid state despite doing them everything else right?

Peat: The content in oranges is so low I don’t think even a gallon a day would affect the thyroid, but a glass or two of carrot juice definitely can.

Me: What are your thoughts on taking enzymes like serrapeptase?

Peat: Could cause unwanted internal bleeding.

Me: What is the minimum amount of fat that you would recommend for a young woman?

Peat: The amount in 1% milk, eggs, some lean meat and cheese, is more than enough. When there’s enough milk in the diet, the metabolic rate can tolerate more fat without gaining body fat.

Me: I am thinking about using herbs to get rid of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and leaky gut symptoms. Are these safe? What are your opinions?

Peat: I think the risk of allergic reaction balances any benefit from a germicidal effect.

Me: What do you think of the traditional Mongolian diet? It is heavily based on dairy and often includes animal organs. Vegetables are very limited.

Peat: Milk compensates for the lack of vegetables.

Me: What are your thoughts on high dose thiamine therapy? HIGH-D0SE THIAMINE (HDT) THERAPY for Parkinson's Disease

Peat: I think it’s appropriate to keep investigating its use in serious conditions such as Parkinson’s.

Me: [I asked him about impacted wisdom teeth]

Peat: My impacted lower wisdom teeth rotated into position in about three weeks when I took a little DHEA. Several people have told me of similar experiences.

Me: [Asked him about safety of Botox and a Botox injectionist's website]

Peat: Not at all, her website is toxic. Botox damages the brain.

Me: [asked him about chronic muscle knots]

Peat: Hypothyroidism and excess parathyroid hormone are the main causes. Deficiencies of vitamin D, vitamin K, and magnesium are other common causes.

Me: [asked him about a good diet for my dog]

Peat:
I think meat, fish, cottage cheese, eggs, well cooked potatoes, squash, and fruit are safe, same as for people. Losartan protects eyes, as well as lungs and other tissues.

PLoS One. 2015; 10(10): e0141137.
Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma
Harry A. Quigley,# 1 ,* Ian F. Pitha, 1 Derek S. Welsbie,# 1 Cathy Nguyen, 1 Matthew R. Steinhart, 1 Thao D. Nguyen, 2 Mary Ellen Pease, 1 Ericka N. Oglesby, 1 Cynthia A. Berlinicke, 1 Katherine L. Mitchell, 1 Jessica Kim, 1 Joan J. Jefferys, 1 and Elizabeth C. Kimball# 1
Marta Agudo-Barriuso, Editor

Purpose

To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in mice.

Methods

We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry.

Results

Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13), while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p < 0.0001). The lower RGC loss with losartan was significantly less than the loss with spironolactone or enalapril (regression model p = 0.001; drug treatment group term p = 0.01). Both losartan and enalapril significantly lowered blood pressure (p< 0.001), but losartan was protective, while enalapril led to worse than water-treated RGC loss. RGC loss after crush injury was unaffected by losartan treatment (difference from control p = 0.9). Survival of RGC in cell culture was not prolonged by sartan treatment. Axonal transport blockade after 3 day IOP elevations was less in losartan-treated than in control glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007). Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP.

Conclusions

The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at the optic nerve head.

Go to:
Introduction
Glaucoma is the most common preventable cause of blindness worldwide [1], and its damaging effects are known to be mediated through alterations at the optic nerve head (ONH) produced by the action intraocular pressure (IOP) [2,3]. Engineering models of ocular tissues that describe IOP-induced effects show that peripapillary sclera (PPS) behavior is important in determining the effect of IOP on the ONH [4,5,6]. Risk factors for human glaucoma include features related to scleral anatomy or physiology, including axial myopia, corneal hysteresis, and corneal thickness [7]. In human glaucoma eyes the sclera is stiffer by in vivo indirect measurement [8] and by in vitro inflation testing [9], and undergoes alterations in PPS collagen fiber orientation [10].

The sclera is substantially altered in experimental glaucoma in mice [11] including axial elongation, increase in stiffness on inflation testing [12], loss of non-fibrillar matrix [13] thickening and reorientation of collagenous fiber layers, decreased scleral permeability [14], increased scleral fibroblast activity and division, and increase in integrin-linked and actin-cytoskeletal signaling by proteomic analysis [15]. Alterations in PPS affect susceptibility to experimental glaucoma damage. Mice with a mutated connective tissue gene for collagen 8α2 have larger eyes, with stiffer sclera at baseline and they resist glaucoma injury more than do wild type C57BL/6 mice [16]. Increased scleral cross-linking by application of glyceraldehyde led to increased retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in experimental mouse glaucoma [17]. It is therefore likely that both the baseline state of the sclera and its dynamic alteration could affect the manner in which IOP is translated into a damaging stimulus in glaucoma.

The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathways are activated in experimental and human glaucoma in trabecular meshwork [18] and ONH [19,20]. Proteomic analysis of sclera in mice with experimental glaucoma show >2-fold increases in thrombospondins 1 and 4, known activators of TGFβ [15]. The selective angiotensin 1 receptor (AT1R) inhibitor, losartan, suppresses Smad2 phosphorylation and TGFβ expression in its canonical pathway, as well as inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related (ERK) in a parallel pathway. Blockade of AT1Rs increases AT2R activation, reducing TGFβ stimulation [21]. Overactivity of TGFβ in the Marfan syndrome leads to aortic dissection [22,23], and selective AT1R inhibition by losartan is beneficial in mouse Marfan models and has entered clinical trials [24]. Candesartan, an AT1R inhibitor, was reported to decrease RGC loss in experimental rat glaucoma with oral dosing [25], no detailed studies were performed in that report to show the mechanism by which the drug acted.

We hypothesize that losartan-induced inhibition of TGFβ signaling in a mouse model of glaucoma would alter RGC survival by modifying the scleral response to chronically elevated IOP. Potential therapeutic alterations of the sclera could supplement IOP-lowering therapy in human glaucoma by reducing IOP-generated stress at the ONH [26].

Me: What are your thoughts about yoga and meditation?

Peat: Best when incorporated into regular activities.

Me: [asked him about headaches that occur when backbending]

Peat: Bacterial endotoxin creates a chronic inflammation and leakiness of blood vessels, reducing stress tolerance.

Me: [asked him what he thought would be a good career today]

Peat: Teaching can be interesting as well as inoffensive.
Great post. Thx!
I have not been able to find quality 1% milk.
I can get delicious milk. But the reduced fat version only goes down to 2%
 
Joined
Oct 13, 2019
Messages
113
Q: Do you think that incubating one’s own stem cells for possible future therapies is a worthy investment? I am 23.
There is a lab that will extract and lifetime incubate one’s own stem cells for $5,000.

A: “No”.
 

Mauritio

Member
Joined
Feb 26, 2018
Messages
2,315
Q:
I found this study that says vitamin E succinate inhibits the expression of the androgen receptor.
I can't really make sense of that. Would you say it's better to use another type of vitamin E ?


Vitamin E succinate inhibits the function of androgen receptor and the expression of prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer cells


A: " In vitro cell studies aren’t relevant to its effects in a person. It has anti-inflammatory effects that would account for lowering PSA."


Q: I found studies showing beneficial effects against liver carcinoma and melanoma ,but in both cases only the succinate type was effective , no other type of Vitamin E .
Do you know why that is?"

A: " I think succinate might be functioning in a detoxifying reaction, increasing glucuronic acid."
 

Mauritio

Member
Joined
Feb 26, 2018
Messages
2,315
On if those emf antennas are dangerous

A:" Aluminum foil or wire screens on the walls between the towers and your room would be protective. Drapes and curtains containing shielding fibers are available."
 

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Beastmode

Member
Joined
Feb 7, 2017
Messages
681
ME:
How did your "processing" of information change after starting thyroid decades ago?

Did you notice a change in memory, learning stuff, creativity and/or anything surprising?

RAY:
It made it easier to pace myself, not trying to do everything at once.
 

5a-DHP

Member
Joined
Jun 23, 2020
Messages
183
Q:
Do you have any thoughts on the general safety profile of the synthetic androgen methenolone?

A:
"No; generally safety studies of new androgens have been extremely inadequate."

Q:
Do you think that haematomachrosis is ever genetic in origin? 99% of patients who present with iron overload via elevated ferritin and/or transferrin saturation are diagnosed with 'hereditary' haematomachrosis - is this yet another metabolic condition that modern medicine tries to fit into its genetic dogma?

A:
"I think some of the things they consider to be effects of hemochromatosis, including lipid peroxidation and high estrogen, are likely to be causative, as well."
 
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