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The Liver Oscillates, Can Change Size By More Than 40% Over 24 Hours

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by haidut, Jun 30, 2017.

  1. haidut

    haidut Member

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    I wanted it to post this study as it is quite interesting and points to a possible reason for the number of inconsistent diagnoses people on the forum have been reporting as a result of liver ultrasound. Apparently, the liver oscillates continuously based on the person's circadian rhythm, and its size can vary by up to 43% depending on feeding status and time of day. So, if somebody plans on going to the doctor for liver ultrasound they should probably go on empty stomach as otherwise they can easily get a diagnosis of hepatomegaly, while in reality the change in size could be quite natural.

    http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(17)30428-2

    "...The processing and detoxification of nutrients in the liver must be coordinated with feeding/fasting rhythms, which are imposed by daily rest/activity cycles. The cyclic expression of genes participating in these processes can be orchestrated by systemic cues, controlled by environmental rhythms and the circadian master pacemaker in the SCN and/or by local circadian hepatocyte oscillators (Kornmann et al., 2007; Partch et al., 2014; Schibler et al., 2015). The underpinning mechanisms can act at the level of transcription (Menet et al., 2012), RNA splicing (Gotic et al., 2016), mRNA polyadenylation and stability (Kojima et al., 2012), and translation (Atger et al., 2015; Janich et al., 2015; Jouffe et al., 2013). Feeding-fasting rhythms play a dominant role in driving oscillations in gene expression and metabolism, either via synchronizing peripheral oscillators in hepatocytes or, more directly, by controlling the activity of regulators and enzymes participating in anabolic and catabolic metabolic functions. Here, we show that the entire liver oscillates with regard to tissue mass, hepatocyte size, and macromolecular content (schematically visualized in Figure 7C). These rhythms are accentuated in mice exclusively fed during the night and dampened in mice exclusively fed during the day. Although the circadian clock contributed to their amplitude, feeding during the dark phase appeared to be the dominant parameter in determining global liver oscillations. Because of the higher amplitudes observed in night-fed mice, we performed most of our experiments with these animals. However, we believe—and demonstrate it for select features—that the same mechanisms are also operative in ad-lib-fed animals."

    "...As shown above, cell size oscillates in night-fed animals, and we therefore anticipated daily fluctuation of the total liver mass in these animals. Indeed, we observed a marked difference in liver weight at ZT0 and ZT12 in these mice (Figure 1E), whereas the weight of kidneys, lungs, heart, spleen, and testis remained constant, irrespective of the feeding regimen (Figures 1D–1F, S1A, and S1B). Moreover, the difference in liver weight strongly depended on the feeding regimen. Thus, the ratio of liver weight measured at ZT0 and ZT12 increased from 1.34 in ad-lib-fed mice (Figure 1D) to 1.43 in night-fed mice (NF) (Figure 1E). Yet, in day-fed mice (DF), there was only a statistically insignificant trend of a liver weight increase during the feeding period (Figure 1F). As shown in Figure 1G, the liver mass oscillated in a smooth diurnal cycle in night-fed mice but remained nearly constant in day-fed mice."
     
  2. tankasnowgod

    tankasnowgod Member

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    Interesting! A few years back, I remember a friend telling me about someone who had donated part of their liver to someone. I was taken aback, and asked "Are they still alive?" He said yes, and that apparently, the liver regenerates, so you can donate up to 70% of it to someone. Now, it makes more sense, since it can vary in size so much over such a short time period.

    As an aside, I got curios if liver donors could ever consume alcohol after donating. Apparently, donors can resume moderate intake of alcohol two to three months after the operation.

    It seems to be quite the amazing organ!
     
  3. DaveFoster

    DaveFoster Member

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    You know what else can change size by more than 40% in 24 hours?

    My food bill :ss2
     
  4. aguilaroja

    aguilaroja Member

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    Indeed, "non-genetic" influences are "at work":

    The role of feeding rhythm, adrenal hormones and neuronal inputs in synchronizing daily clock gene rhythms in the liver. - PubMed - NCBI
    “Clock genes kept their daily rhythm when only one of these three signals was disrupted, or when we disrupted hepatic neuronal inputs together with the adrenal hormone rhythm or with the daily feeding rhythm. However, all clock genes studied lost their daily expression rhythm after simultaneous disruption of the feeding and adrenal hormone rhythm. These data indicate that either a daily rhythm of feeding or adrenal hormones should be present to synchronize clock gene rhythms in the liver with the SCN.”

    “...although peripheral clock genes in the liver can maintain their daily rhythmicity without an intact autonomic hepatic input, either a clear daily rhythm in feeding activity or adrenal hormones needs to be present in order for the SCN to be able to synchronize the daily rhythm of clock gene expression in the liver with the environmental light/dark cycles.”
     
  5. Ideonaut

    Ideonaut Member

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    This evidence of the adaptive and physiological malleability of a major organ is amazing, like Peat's accounts of finger ends being regenerated. Turning to another organ, the brain, it is now known that new neurons can be generated, contrary to long-held belief to the contrary. I'm wondering if any anatomy-savvy readers here can attest to the following account of brain convolutions corresponding to mental development? I had always thought that the brain is static in this respect, so I am a little puzzled.

    "There, on the body of a vigorous young man, estimated to be thirty (30) years of age in Earth time, could have been a small Olympic athlete, there in his skull was the brain of a human being several hundred years old. The surgeons said..the brain specialists said that never had they seen the surface of a brain so deeply, and so intricately convoluted. And as you all know, the convolutions of the brain are an indication, an infallible indication, of both the age of the brain and the state of its intellectual development. A feeble minded person of any age has an almost smooth brain surface. A new born baby has a smooth brain surface. But, as age and intellectual development occur, the convolutions become more pronounced...these are little folds and rivulets...you've seen them...ah...and they had never seen so highly convoluted a brain. And if the same biological standards apply to their planet, as they apply to this, there was a man several hundred years old who had been spared the infirmities of age, and had never known senility."
    (from Robert Carr Alien Autopsy Discussion)
     
  6. Wagner83

    Wagner83 Member

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    My nose when I talk about my size.
     
  7. pimpnamedraypeat

    pimpnamedraypeat Member

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    Hey guy...first of....aliens don't exist.
    That person was most likely a human from another planet, dude. Humans are space-faring species, bro, get with the program.
     
  8. Ideonaut

    Ideonaut Member

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    Oh, you know everything. . . awesome--and respectful and courteous too!
     
  9. pimpnamedraypeat

    pimpnamedraypeat Member

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    No need for sarcasm bro. I'm letting you in on a little secret. Humans have had highly advanced civilizations in the distant past and have discovered space travel and left the earth.

    They come back to check up on us and they look a little weird but theyre still people.

    Your Roswell example, if real, is one of those people.
     
  10. ecstatichamster

    ecstatichamster Member

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    Prostates change size radically in a short period. But docs treat enlarged prostates by removing some or all. Really a farce causing suffering.
     
  11. Drareg

    Drareg Member

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    It's a business,some people get great joy from their surgical pay checks,opposites and all.
    Keeps the economy ticking over too,most of those men are nearly dead anyway,they don't really need a prostrate or male hormones.
     
  12. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

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    Actually, the liver is like the adrenals - as long as a few cells are left it can regenerate completely. The reason only up to 70% of the liver is allowed for donation is that the donor needs the remaining 30% to perform the function the liver normally does. If there was a way to put the person on something akin to "liver dialysis" then they can donate pretty much their entire liver. I think it has been done already (not as a donor experiment) with people in coma due to liver failure waiting for liver transplant. There were a few cases in India in the 1960s, possibly done by the same people who reversed cirrhosis with saturated fat. The persin in coma had their liver completely removed and then their blood filtered through a machine. Two of the cases had an almost miraculous complete regeneration of liver tissue. I have to find those case studies and post here. It has been more than 3 years since I read them after hearing Peat mention reversibility of liver disease with saturated fat.
     
  13. Dante

    Dante Member

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    Haidut, any reference for the adrenal regeneration capabilities ? Still , with that miraculous regeneration capability, people are walking with "idiopathic" liver dysfunction. If i remember, you were one of them :)
     
  14. Regina

    Regina Member

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    Can the thymus gland re-generate? Thank you
     
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