Circadian Autophagy, Fat Liver, Lithium And Caffeine

Discussion in 'Articles & Scientific Studies' started by Such_Saturation, Apr 25, 2015.

  1. Such_Saturation

    Such_Saturation Member

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    Atg7 complementation resulted in reduced hepatic fatty acid infiltration ( Figures 6A and 6B), liver triglyceride content ( Figure 6C), and serum insulin level ( Figure 6D). There was a modest increase in serum triglyceride, but not free fatty acid levels, in mice expressing exogenous Atg7 ( Figures S5C and S5D). It is possible that enhanced autophagy reduced lipid accumulation through an increase in lipid metabolism, as proposed by Singh et al. (2009). [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413110001166]

    Sinha et al. report on a study demonstrating that caffeine may be just such an ideal intervention to protect against FLD by enhancing lipophagy and mitochondrial-β oxidation simultaneously.[14] By using a series of autophagic flux assays, they demonstrated that caffeine induces autophagic flux in human hepatoma cells, primary cultured hepatocytes, and mouse livers. They further found that caffeine-induced autophagosomes often contain LDs, suggesting the induction of lipophagy. Metabolomic analysis of hepatic acylcarnitines revealed an increase of hepatic lipolysis by caffeine treatment. More important, caffeine increased mitochondrial β-oxidation activity and inhibited hepatic steatosis in a high-fat-diet-fed mouse model. Interestingly, they found that small interfering RNA knockdown of Atg5, an essential autophagy gene required for biogenesis of autophagosomes, inhibited caffeine-induced mitochondrial β-oxidation and mitochondrial bioenergetics. Selective removal of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy may help to maintain better quality of mitochondria and thus enhance mitochondrial β-oxidation and mitochondrial bioenergetics. [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.26736/full] (see Lithium makes the weaker mithochondria die off)

    circadian regulation of C/EBPβ and autophagy is disrupted in mice lacking a functional liver clock. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243590/]

    Lithium, a drug used to treat bipolar disorders, has a variety of neuroprotective mechanisms, including autophagy regulation [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24738557]

    The data suggest that exogenous lithium stimulates triglyceride metabolism since liver triglycerides decreased concomitant with an increase in serum free fatty acid. [http://jn.nutrition.org/content/104/10/1242.full.pdf]
     
  2. OP
    Such_Saturation

    Such_Saturation Member

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  3. mujuro

    mujuro Member

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    As someone currently on 450mg lithium carbonate daily, this is welcome news. For all the biological flaws and faults that bipolar disorders herald, its nice to know I have a good drug on my side. That's not to say I haven't already, over the years, given lithium a bad rap for all its water retention, renal and weight gaining effects.
     
  4. OP
    Such_Saturation

    Such_Saturation Member

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    Do you notice more energy or just more spread out energy?
     
  5. Stuart

    Stuart Member

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    What is a reasonable daily dose of each Such_? I've been taking 100mg caffeine and 10mg lithium aspartate.
     
  6. OP
    Such_Saturation

    Such_Saturation Member

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    I have no idea, I would probably take at least ten times less than what psychiatrist give. I knew a woman who didn't do the regular kidney checks for a long time, when she went back to the doctor they told her she had 50% kidney function. She was on a load of things though.
     
  7. XPlus

    XPlus Member

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    Can I use my cam recorder battery for this?
     
  8. OP
    Such_Saturation

    Such_Saturation Member

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    Only if it's safely discharged.
     
  9. mujuro

    mujuro Member

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    I really couldn't tell you. You would need to ask someone on lithium who isn't bipolar, or fiddle around with some yourself. My energy levels still fluctuate as it is, with heavy weightlifting a few nights per week that drain my CNS, and my sleep schedule is still rough around the edges. Detecting subtle changes as a result of nutraceuticals has always been a challenge for me. I must say that going from non-medicated to medicated, my energy is definitely more spread out, particularly my ability to hone my mental faculties on challenging tasks, and my acute physical strength, but who's to say that isn't the neuroleptic quetiapine correcting the HPA axis dysfunction. For the last 12 months prior to being medicated my lifts in the gym had more or less stalled. Matter of fact, it had been that way for almost 2 years, while I wallowed in depression and brief hypomanic episodes. In the past 5 months medicated they're climbing every month, with relative ease. It's quite remarkable, the contrast between the sickly unmedicated state and the healthful medicated one.
     
  10. jyb

    jyb Member

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    I experimented with lithium a few years ago, because it is featured in one of Ray's article. But he writes that it's similar to sodium. So when I wrote about it, someone brought up there might be no difference and no need to buy this over the counter supplement.
     
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