Niacinamide Inhibits Cytotoxic Effects Of Methylene Blue

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by haidut, May 20, 2015.

  1. haidut

    haidut Member

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    Methylene blue (MB) in higher concetrations (5mmol and above) has been show to be cytotoxic and the mechanism is believed to be mainly through increases in lipid peroxidation. This study claims that niacinamide and some other anti-oxidants like vitamin E may mitigate those cytotoxic effects of MB.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8620561

    "...Methylene blue plus visible light, in the presence of oxygen, induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes, as assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides and the loss of membrane-bound enzymes. Peroxidation was enhanced by deuteration of the buffer and inhibited by scavengers of singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide (O2.-). The damage induced seemed to be mainly due to Type II involving 1O2 and to a lesser extent Type I reactions with O2.- and hydroxyl radical (.OH) as intermediates. Nicotinamide or vitamin B3, an endogenous metabolite occurring at high concentrations in tissues, had a relatively high rate constant of 1.8 x 108 M-1 s-1 with 102 and had a significant inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation induced by photosensitization. This effect was both time- and concentration-dependent, high inhibition being associated with millimolar concentrations. Chemically related endogenous compounds like tryptophan and isonicotinic acid also had significant inhibitory properties. Similar protective effects were observed with natural antioxidants such as beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, lipoic acid, glutathione, alpha-tocopherol and to a lesser extent ascorbic acid. Nicotinamide was a more effective antioxidant than ascorbic acid. It also showed a similar inhibitory effect against NADPH-ADP-FE3(+)-induced lipid peroxidation. Our results suggest that nicotinamide had significant ability to protect against photosensitization-induced cytotoxicity and cell damage and that it may do so by its ability to react with 102 and other reactive oxygen species."
     
  2. jaguar43

    jaguar43 Member

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    What do they mean when they say Methylene Blue plus visible light ? When MB is under ultraviolet light or something ?
     
  3. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

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    I think they mean the spectrum of visible light which contains mostly red/orange and some blue - i.e. 390nm to 700nm.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visible_spectrum
     
  4. jaguar43

    jaguar43 Member

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    So are they saying that once MB is exposed to light, thats when it can cause lipid lipid peroxidation ? Because I think their was a quote saying that rats who were giving high dosages of MB were still fine and their wasn't any health risk involve ?
     
  5. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

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    Yes, they are saying that it will cause lipid peroxidation. MB is an oxidation agent after all. I can't see what was the concentration used but was probably high and not something achievable easily by oral supplementation. The doses used for photosensitization in cancer therapy are usually hundreds of milligrams, so nothing to worry about. I still think MB and niacinamide taken together will have synergistic effect on NAD levels as shown by separate studies.
     
  6. jaguar43

    jaguar43 Member

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    True.
     
  7. Hugh Johnson

    Hugh Johnson Member

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    Just wondering, if lipid peroxidization is the problem, and SFA barely oxidizes, would PFA deficiency also protect from this?
     
  8. jyb

    jyb Member

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    It's also the kind of dose used for Malaria clinical trials.
     
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