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Vitamin C Helps Covid-19 Infected Patients By Regulating Iron?

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by md_a, Mar 28, 2020.

  1. md_a

    md_a Member

    Joined:
    Aug 31, 2015
    Messages:
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    I wonder if the mechanism by which vitamin C helps Covid-19 infected patients is by regulating iron in the body, reducing ferritin, and thus preventing lipid peroxidation.

    Hemoglobin, myoglobin and heme compounds can accelerate lipid peroxidation by at least two different mechanisms: the heme ring can react with peroxides to form active oxo-iron species, such as perferryl iron (iron oxidation state) and ferryl, and a molar of excess of peroxide fragmentation of the cyclic tetrapyrrole rings, releasing chelatable iron.

    Proteins ferroxidase activity makes a major contribution to extracellular antioxidant protection against iron driven lipid peroxidation.

    A reduced availability of copper results in the production of apo-ceruloplasmin, which has no ferroxidase capability and is rapidly degraded in plasma. A reduction of ferroxidase activity due to a decreased presence of ceruloplasmin results in more Fe2+ available for Fenton reactions.

    Plasma contains proteins such as haptoglobins and hemopexin specifically to bind and conserve hemoglobin and heme iron respectively.

    Binding to these proteins greatly diminishes the ability of heme proteins to accelerate lipid peroxidation.

    The major biological function of haptoglobin is binding and recycling of free hemoglobin in plasma to prevent oxidative damage induced by heme iron following hemolysis.

    When the hemoglobin-binding capacity of haptoglobin is saturated, its antioxidant role is taken over by hemopexin (heme-binding protein) and by vitamin C.

    The inhibition of heme release from hemoglobin by haptoglobin and sequestration of heme by hemopexin suppress hemoglobin-mediated oxidation of lipids and attenuate subsequent endothelial cell damage.

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease are two prototypes of devastating diseases caused by pulmonary endothelial cells dysfunction.

    Endothelial damage and subsequent clotting is common in severe and critical COVID-19 coronavirus, which may have implications for treatment.


    Effect of short-term intravenous ascorbic acid on reducing ferritin in hemodialysis patients

    We showed that low amount of IVAA could reduce ferritin level and enhance Hb and TSAT, suggesting improved iron utilization.

    Effect of short-term intravenous ascorbic acid on reducing ferritin in hemodialysis patients


    The serum levels of CRP, PCT and ferritin are markedly increased in very severe compared with severe COVID-19. Increased CRP, PCT and ferritin level might correlate to secondary bacterial infection and associated with poor clinical prognosis.

    Utility of Ferritin, Procalcitonin, and C-reactive Protein in Severe Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease


    Lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes of fatty acids--initial, malondialdehyde--secondary) are significantly increased in groups of subjects with deficient levels of vitamin C (below the limit from antioxidative point of view), vitamin E and both vitamins, if compared to group with normal vitamin levels (over limit in accordance with antioxidative criterion). The results document that the deficiency in two key antioxidants for lipid peroxidation inhibition means the insufficient defense against free radicals and the increased lipid peroxidation.

    Lipid peroxidation in relation to vitamin C and vitamin E levels. - PubMed - NCBI


    Pulmonary Vascular Endothelial Cells | IntechOpen

    https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/covid19/85577
     
  2. OP
    md_a

    md_a Member

    Joined:
    Aug 31, 2015
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    Ray Peat talked in a 2012 radio interview "Antioxidants" about vitamin C.

    "... that happens inside the cell during stress. If you're overloaded with iron, when your cell can't use iron properly, any reductant including vitamin c will react to turn the highly oxidized iron into the partly reduced form ferrous iron. In which case that iron then becomes a major oxidant transferring its electrons to fats and proteins, DNA and so on."

    About dehydroascorbic acid which is found in meat, milk

    "It's functioning in the cell as an oxidant, and that is how it's having a major part of its protective effect... if you have a temporary shut-off of the blood supply ... "

    "The presence of the oxidative dehydroascorbic in the cell functions as a substitute for oxygen for a short time. It soaks up these random damaging electrons, being turned back into ordinary ascorbic acid which then becomes water soluble, leaves the cell."

    “I have argued that it is vitamin C's laxative action which can interrupt cold symptoms.” RP

    “In aging, stress, and malnutrition, the barrier function of the intestine is weakened. Vitamin A and magnesium deficiencies allow macromolecules to enter the blood from the intestine. Injury to the bowel causes "flu-like" symptoms. There have been reports that the viruses of "respiratory diseases" appear in the intestine before they appear in the respiratory tract. Alvarez found that "when a dog gets distemper the gradient of latent period down its small bowel is reversed," and he suggests that in a cold "a systolic, non-progressive type of contraction appears." He says codeine is the best medicine to block a cold. (I have argued that it is vitamin C's laxative action which can interrupt cold symptoms.) Recent research shows that naloxone, the morphine antagonist, can restore normal responses to the stressed bowel. Alvarez was interested in chronic fatigue and "painful fatigue," and remarked that occasionally "a fatigue state will follow a bout with some infection such as influenza." Ray Peat - The Bean Syndrome
     
  3. Giraffe

    Giraffe Member

    Joined:
    Jun 20, 2015
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    2,693
    Ray Peat thinks that ferritin is a marker of inflammation, and that it protects against iron that is released during inflammation. "Ferritin binds iron, and while it's bound it is less likely to produce random free radical damage. -- RP"

    Vitamin E is anti-estrogen, anti-clotting, destroyed by iron.

    Inflammation increases the need for vitamin E and vitamin C (and other nutrients). Both help to prevent excessive nitric oxide production during various types of stress.

    Vitamin C seems to spare and/or recycle vitamin E.

    If vitamin E is marginal, vitamin C becomes pro-inflammatory (source: one of @Amazoniac's zillions of posts on vitamin C).

    Endotoxin causes inflammation, and vitamin C taken orally (or in doses you can take orally) by some mechanism or the other helps to prevent that too much endotoxin is absorbed from the intestine. At the higher blood concentrations that can only be achieved by intravenous administration there might be a different mechanism, though.

    Vitamin E: Estrogen antagonist, energy promoter, and anti-inflammatory
    Aging, estrogen, and progesterone
    Receptors, fields, and therapies
    Iron's Dangers
    Ray Peat Email Exchanges - Ray Peat Forum Wiki
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  4. OP
    md_a

    md_a Member

    Joined:
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    I appreciate your help
     
  5. LucH

    LucH Member

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    Jul 17, 2015
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    The usefulness of vitamin C (justification) is to boost the production of NK lymphocytes (natural killers). It is then necessary to assist the macrophages to evacuate the residues (LPS absorbed), in order to avoid turning on the immune system (over-reaction). We need fat to evacuate these residues (easier via omega-9 fatty acids – olive oil and avocado – and a little omega-3 via white fish and seafood).
    doi: 10.3390/antiox7030041.
    AA enhances the proliferation of NK cells, a group of cytotoxic innate lymphocytes.
     
  6. OP
    md_a

    md_a Member

    Joined:
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    Thank you!
     
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