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IRON And Covid-19

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by md_a, Mar 28, 2020.

  1. md_a

    md_a Member

    Joined:
    Aug 31, 2015
    Messages:
    197
    The serum levels of CRP, PCT and FERRITIN are markedly increased in very severe compared with severe COVID-19. Increased CRP, PCT and ferritin level might correlate to secondary bacterial infection and associated with poor clinical prognosis.
    https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-18079/v1


    The high levels of industry in the region — the Wuhan Iron & Steel Company — are likely the cause of higher “emission inventories” prescribed by the model for the Wuhan region.

    Do Sulfur Emissions from Wuhan, China, Point to Mass Cremation of Coronavirus Victims?


    What is Lombardy famous for?

    Lombardy is the leading industrial and commercial regione of Italy. Milan, the chief city, is one of the largest industrial centres of Italy. It makes iron and steel, automobiles and trucks, and machinery and is also a centre of banking and wholesale and retail trade.



    The lung is the major organ for gas exchange and like all other organs it is exposed to circulating iron. Additionally, lung cells are directly exposed to exogenous iron sources via inhalation (e.g., cigarette smoke). A disruption of iron homeostasis in the lung is frequently associated with respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome, and cystic fibrosis.

    As iron plays a critical role in the development of infectious diseases, the maintenance of low iron levels in the lung is crucial not only to prevent oxidative stress but also to sustain the pulmonary defense against inhaled pathogens. A positive correlation between sputum iron content and P. aeruginosa levels in clinically stable cystic fibrosis patients supports this idea.

    Apart from air pollution, cigarette smoke also causes fine (iron) particle exposure of the airways and modulates lung iron homeostasis. The cigarette smoke-induced lung injury was shown to be particle related and is clinically associated with a loss of lung function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and a pathological lung tissue transformation (e.g., emphysema, fibrosis). The tracheal lavage from rats exposed to cigarette smoke contained higher levels of iron, transferrin and ferritin. Consistently, the lung non-heme iron content was increased. By contrast, serum iron and transferrin concentrations were reduced in these exposed rats. Additionally, serum ferritin and liver non-heme iron concentrations were increased, indicating a combined disturbance of lung and systemic iron homeostasis. A similar expression pattern in the bronchial lavage of smokers with or without COPD was confirmed by the same authors.

    Iron Homeostasis in the Lungs—A Balance between Health and Disease
     
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