Studies Related To The Dangers Of Carrageenan

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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091674995700919

Some patients have had trouble with barium enemas thought to be from latex in the formula. This study shows it could be carrageenan instead of the latex theory:

Results: Carrageenan, a component of the barium enema solution, produced positive reactions to allergy skin test and RAST.

Gastrointestinal symptoms for which the patient was being investigated by the barium enema subsequently disappeared with a diet free of carrageenan.

Conclusions:
Carrageenan is a previously unreported cause of anaphylaxis during barium enema. It is an allergen widely distributed in common foods and potentially could account for some symptoms related to milk products or baby formula.
 

Luna

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Poligeenan (CAS No. 53973-98-1) is a low viscosity, low molecular weight, sulfated polygalactan polymer used exclusively in clinical diagnostic applications. The polymer is derived from the molecular backbone of carrageenan.

The name "poligeenan" was confirmed in 1988 by the United States Adopted Names (USAN) Council.[1] The Council is sponsored by the American Medical Association, the American Pharmaceutical Association, and the US Pharmacopeial Convention Inc.

Prior to 1988, "poligeenan" was referred to as "degraded carrageenan" in the scientific literature. The terms "poligeenan" and "degraded carrageenan" were often used interchangeably in research articles[2] and reports.[3] The use of the term "degraded carageenan" caused confusion which resulted in the attribution the negative observations associated with “poligeenan/degraded carrageenan” being attributed to “carrageenan”.[4][5] Carrageenan is an approved food additive[6] with an extensive toxicology data base that has been reviewed by regulatory bodies and provides scientific evidence for safe inclusion in foods. Poligeenan is not an approved food additive in the United States. Poligeenan’s low molecular weight precludes it from exhibiting functionality in food. The International Agency for Research on Cancer assigned Poligeenan to carcinogenic risk category 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans).[7] "Poligeenan" and "carrageenan" are completely different products.

Poligeenan is produced by the harsh acid degradation of carrageenan. Carrageenan in solution is processed at low pH (~pH1.0) and high temperature (~90 °C / 194 °F) for up to 6h until the weight-average molecular weight (Mw) has been reduced to the range 10,000 – 20,000 Daltons (10-20 kDa). The resulting poligeenan solution is neutralized and spray dried to a fine powder.

The primary use for poligeenan is for clinical diagnostic applications, and specifically the suspension of barium sulfate slurries used in X-ray studies of the mouth, throat, and esophagus during swallowing. For this application, poligeenan delivers three essential properties: First, its viscosity imparts lubricity to make the slurry easier to swallow. Second, this same viscosity is high enough to maintain full suspension of all barium sulfate particles during the complete X-ray procedure. Third, the high charge density of the poligeenan solution (ester sulfate units) prevents caking or aggregation of the barium sulfate particles during long-term storage of ready-to-use slurry products, these being easily reconstituted by shaking. The combination of these three application properties necessitates poligeenan to have Mw between 10-20 kDa.

References[edit]
  1. Jump up^ List No. 297, New Names, 1988, USAN Council, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 44, 246-248).
  2. Jump up^ Beattie, et al. 1970. "A Study of Orally-Administered Degraded Carrageenan in the Baboon". Food. Cosmet. Toxicol. 8:257-266.
  3. Jump up^ Beattie, et al. 2014. Corrigendum to "A Study of Orally-Administered Degraded Carrageenan in the Baboon", Food and Chemical Toxicology , doi: 10.1016/j.fct2014.10.012.
  4. Jump up^ McKim JM. 2014. “Food additive carrageenan: Part I: A critical review of carrageenan in vitro studies, potential pitfalls, and implications for human health and safety
  5. Jump up^ Weiner ML. 2014. “Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies.
  6. Jump up^ 21 C.F.R. §172.620
  7. Jump up^ IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Human. Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs Volumes 1-110. Updated List 23 October, 2014 [1]
Poligeenan - Wikipedia

Acid "low pH (~pH1.0)" and heat "(~90 °C / 194 °F) " over a long period of time "up to 6 h" on carrageenan promotes carrageenan to become poligeenan "(degraded carrageenan)";
and poligeenan is thought to be correlated with carcinogens (Wikipedia, 1 Jul 2017).

If carrageenan is used in dairy products (as a stabilizer), and processed foods (as a stabilizer, filler...etc), and the human stomach is acidic, and the human gut takes time to excrete ingested food molecules, and the body is warm, then we should be asking 'Does carrageenan become poligeenan in vivo?'.
 

michael94

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Poligeenan - Wikipedia

Acid "low pH (~pH1.0)" and heat "(~90 °C / 194 °F) " over a long period of time "up to 6 h" on carrageenan promotes carrageenan to become poligeenan "(degraded carrageenan)";
and poligeenan is thought to be correlated with carcinogens (Wikipedia, 1 Jul 2017).

If carrageenan is used in dairy products (as a stabilizer), and processed foods (as a stabilizer, filler...etc), and the human stomach is acidic, and the human gut takes time to excrete ingested food molecules, and the body is warm, then we should be asking 'Does carrageenan become poligeenan in vivo?'.
Chyme is neutralized by alkaline bile right after it leaves the stomach.
 

Luna

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Apr 2, 2016
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But if the chyme is undigested, because the content is too much then does it pass through to the small and large intestine un neutralized by bile?

The carrageenan is also exposed to heat of packaging, and low acid in products like yogurt for a length of time on the shelf, would that break carrageenan?

There is an article that claims that poligeenan is found in carrageenan by 12 different carrageenan sources. https://www.cornucopia.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/CarageenanReport-2016.pdf
 
Last edited:

michael94

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I've seen studies showing carrageenan causes cancer/etc. when administered by injection but that's not the same as consuming it as a food additive. Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies. - PubMed - NCBI

If I gave you a glass of milk intraveneously you would die so fast it is not even funny. So is milk carcinogenic? :smug: :):

There may be a certain set of gut environments where carrageenan is harmful, absolutely... but the problem with most of these studies is that they are not representative at all of how carrageenan is typically consumed. For example, people will often quote that force feeding carrageenan at 5% of an animal's diet causes intestinal ulcers... so what? It's like those aspirin studies that are designed to find problems with aspirin.
 

michael94

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What if I told you that virtually all food is capable of degrading into carcinogenic, liver-inflaming compounds in the intestines.

....
 
D

danishispsychic

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i swear i think that carrageenan was creating some black slime in my stomach lining. it is in everything....urgh.
 
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