Fitlered Coffee Decreases All-cause Mortality, Unfiltered Not

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by JanP, Apr 23, 2020.

  1. JanP

    JanP Member

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    Coffee consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and total mortality: Does the brewing method matter?

    Abstract


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the coffee brewing method is associated with any death and cardiovascular mortality, beyond the contribution from major cardiovascular risk factors.

    Methods and results

    Altogether, 508,747 men and women aged 20–79 participating in Norwegian cardiovascular surveys were followed for an average of 20 years with respect to cause-specific death. The number of deaths was 46,341 for any cause, 12,621 for cardiovascular disease (CVD), 6202 for ischemic heart disease (IHD), and 2894 for stroke. The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for any death for men with no coffee consumption as reference were 0.85 (082–0.90) for filtered brew, 0.84 (0.79–0.89) for both brews, and 0.96 (0.91–1.01) for unfiltered brew. For women, the corresponding figures were 0.85 (0.81–0.90), 0.79 (0.73–0.85), and 0.91 (0.86–0.96) for filtered, both brews, and unfiltered brew, respectively. For CVD, the figures were 0.88 (0.81–0.96), 0.93 (0.83–1.04), and 0.97 (0.89–1.07) in men, and 0.80 (0.71–0.89), 0.72 (0.61–0.85), and 0.83 (0.74–0.93) in women. Stratification by age raised the HRs for ages ≥60 years. The HR for CVD between unfiltered brew and no coffee was 1.19 (1.00–1.41) for men and 0.98 (0.82–1.15) for women in this age group. The HRs for CVD and IHD were raised when omitting total cholesterol from the model, and most pronounced in those drinking ≥9 of unfiltered coffee, per day where they were raised by 9% for IHD mortality.

    Conclusion

    Unfiltered brew was associated with higher mortality than filtered brew, and filtered brew was associated with lower mortality than no coffee consumption.

    Full study

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  2. revenant

    revenant Member

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  3. OP
    JanP

    JanP Member

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  4. RWilly

    RWilly Member

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    Here's a quote from Mark's Daily Apple:

    "Filtered coffee is coffee that runs through a paper filter, which catches most of the oils. Unfiltered coffee is coffee that doesn't go through a paper filter; either it's completely unfiltered (grounds directly in water) or it runs through a metal filter, which allows the oils to pass through."

    Do Coffee Brewing Methods Matter For Health? | Mark's Daily Apple
     
  5. revenant

    revenant Member

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    Then again, this study says the lipids are healthy:

    Cafestol and Kahweol: A Review on Their Bioactivities and Pharmacological Properties

    "Cafestol and kahweol raise human serum lipid level, and show extensive anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and potential anti-diabetic activities."

    So how come only filtered coffee is associated with less mortality?

    EDIT:

    "Although it is believed that the paper filter retains the brew diterpenes, new studies have shown that sometimes coffee filtered through paper can also increase the blood cholesterol level, putting in doubt the efficiency of the paper filter in retaining the diterpenes. Thus the objective of the present study was to verify the distribution of cafestol between the paper filter, the spent coffee and the coffee brew itself, from two coffee samples containing high and low cafestol contents selected from 13 samples of different cultivars and from different locations. In addition, the effect of the roasting degree on the cafestol contents of the roasted coffee was evaluated and the relationship between particle size of the roasted coffee and the extraction of solids. The highest cafestol content was found in the lightly roasted coffee, and the coffee brew presented higher solids contents when the particle size of the coffee powder was below 500 μm. The results showed that of the initial cafestol concentration present in the roasted coffee, the paper filter retained 12.41%, the spent coffee 87.45% and the brew 0.15%. Thus, one can conclude that the greater part of the coffee cafestol is retained by the spent coffee, due to the low extraction of the lipid fraction by the hot water."

    https://www.researchgate.net/public...er_filter_in_the_preparation_of_filter_coffee

    So only a small amount of the lipids gets stuck in the paper filter and most of it is never extracted. Maybe the temperature of the water has more to do with it. Though it doesn't explain why Turkish coffee would have so much more than filtered coffee.
     
  6. tankasnowgod

    tankasnowgod Member

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    Before making any assumptions about whether brewing method matters from this study, you might want to find out how often they checked in with participants. Usually, it's only by questionnaire, and often, they only check in every 2-4 years.
     
  7. boris

    boris Member

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    Mhh, I notice that espresso coffee gives me a very different feeling than filtered coffee. I don't feel much from filtered coffee, but espresso makes me warm and lifts my mood. Maybe it's the effect of the lipids or could it be tied to the higher pressure of espresso extraction, extracting more components of the bean? I would have thought that was a hint that it made it more beneficial and not the other way around.
     
  8. revenant

    revenant Member

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    "The data stem from the Norwegian Counties Study,23 the Norwegian Age-40 Program,24 and the CONOR Study, a pooling of compatible cohort studies in Norway.25 We collected data from 1985 to 2003. [...] The participants filled in a questionnaire at home, which was checked for inconsistencies at the screening site. The relevant questions for the present report concerned the amount and type of coffee consumed, smoking habits, and duration of formal education. "

    Looking at table 3, a combination of both filtered and unfiltered resulted in a lower hazard ratio than only filtered coffee, especially in women, which doesn't make sense if filtered is supposed to be superior.
     
  9. milkboi

    milkboi Member

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    So, where does that put instant coffee? (I know, I‘m such a pleb)
    It‘s in the same category as unfiltered?
     
  10. OP
    JanP

    JanP Member

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    Scandinavian boiled coffee, Turkish coffee and French press (cafetière) coffee contain relatively high levels of cafestol and kahweol (6-12 mg/cup), while filtered coffee, percolated coffee and instant coffee contain low levels of cafestol and kahweol (0.2-0.6 mg/cup).
     
  11. RWilly

    RWilly Member

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    "Freeze-drying is a key stage in instant coffee production. Coffee beans are first roasted and ground, then dissolved into hot water. ... After filtration, the coffee extract is dried to get the solid soluble coffee. The liquor is frozen to about -40°C to form a thin layer that is then broken into tiny pieces."

    https://www.newfoodmagazine.com/article/16968/freeze-drying-in-the-coffee-industry/
     
  12. milkboi

    milkboi Member

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    Cool, thanks guys
     
  13. revenant

    revenant Member

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    Instant coffee might also have less of the beneficial compounds because of the processing.
     
  14. RWilly

    RWilly Member

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    Instant coffee appears to be filtered, and according to that study, filtered is better.
     
  15. pauljacob

    pauljacob Member

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    I suspect coffee filter makers funded these studies.
     
  16. Experienced

    Experienced Member

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    Yeah could be possible.
     
  17. rei

    rei Member

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    I mentioned this in another thread here, but i have first-hand experience from the difference from filtering. When i was doing OMAD/fasting style and drank coffee black or with small amount of milk, i came to notice that the stainless steel filter for the aeropress gave me a more pronounced stress/adrenaline reaction. Using standard aeropress paper filter limited this, and made the taste smoother. Using two filters at once removes any visible oil from the surface, so it pretty much manages to capture everything.
     
  18. Hugh Johnson

    Hugh Johnson Member

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    The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew-not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules-contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased risk of heart disease who drink large amounts of coffee should be advised to select brews low in diterpenes.​

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1295997/

    OTOH. The question is why does it raise cholesterol.
     
  19. Experienced

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    I guess the oil of cofffee when pressurizing it like beverages for example Espresso's. And filters are filtering the oils etc out but still it could be funded by those guys.
     
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