7-fold Higher COVID-19 Mortality In Vitamin D Deficient Subjects


Dec 10, 2016
COVID-19 is characterized by marked variability in clinical severity. Vitamin D had recently been reviewed as one of the factors that may affect the severity in COVID-19. The objective of current study is to analyze the vitamin D level in COVID-19 patients and its impact on the disease severity. After approval from Ethics Committee, M.L.B Medical College the current study was undertaken as continuous prospective observational study of 6 weeks. Participants were COVID-19 patients of age group 30–60 years admitted during the study period of 6 weeks. Study included either asymptomatic COVID-19 patients (Group A) or severely ill patients requiring ICU admission (Group B). Serum concentration of 25 (OH)D, were measured along with serum IL-6; TNFα and serum ferritin. Standard statistical analysis was performed to analyze the differences. Current Study enrolled 154 patients, 91 in Group A and 63 patients in Group B. The mean level of vitamin D (in ng/mL) was 27.89 ± 6.21 in Group A and 14.35 ± 5.79 in Group B, the difference was highly significant. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 32.96% and 96.82% respectively in Group A and Group B. Out of total 154 patients, 90 patients were found to be deficient in vitamin D (Group A: 29; Group B: 61). Serum level of inflammatory markers was found to be higher in vitamin D deficient COVID-19 patients viz. IL-6 level (in pg/mL) 19.34 ± 6.17 vs 12.18 ± 4.29; Serum ferritin 319.17 ± 38.21 ng/mL vs 186.83 ± 20.18 ng/mL; TNFα level (in pg/mL) 13.26 ± 5.64 vs 11.87 ± 3.15. The fatality rate was high in vitamin D deficient (21% vs 3.1%). Vitamin D level is markedly low in severe COVID-19 patients. Inflammatory response is high in vitamin D deficient COVID-19 patients. This all translates into increased mortality in vitamin D deficient COVID-19 patients. As per the flexible approach in the current COVID-19 pandemic authors recommend mass administration of vitamin D supplements to population at risk for COVID-19.
Analysis of vitamin D level among asymptomatic and critically ill COVID-19 patients and its correlation with inflammatory markers | Scientific Reports


Jul 29, 2014
Abstract is nice. I'll read the full paper later.

Thanks for posting Mito.


Oct 29, 2015
Corozal, Belize


Thread starter
Dec 10, 2016

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher hospitalisation risk from COVID-19: a retrospective case-control study​


Context: One of the risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is postulated to be vitamin D deficiency. To understand better the role of vitamin D deficiency in the disease course of COVID-19, we undertook a retrospective case-control study in the North West of England (NWE).
Objective: To examine whether hospitalisation with COVID-19 is more prevalent in individuals with lower vitamin D levels.
Methods: The study included individuals with results of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) between 1 st April 2020 and 29th January 2021. Patients were recruited from two districts in NWE. The last 25(OH)D level in the previous 12 months was categorised as 'deficient' if less than 25 nmol/L and 'insufficient' if 25-50 nmol/L.
Results: 80,670 participants were entered into the study. Of these, 1,808 were admitted to hospital with COVID-19, of whom 670 died. In a primary cohort, median serum 25(OH)D in participants who were not hospitalised with COVID-19 was 50.0 [interquartile range, IQR 34.0-66.7] nmol/L versus 35.0 [IQR 21.0-57.0] nmol/L in those admitted with COVID-19 (p <0.005). There were similar findings in a validation cohort (median serum 25(OH)D 47.1 [IQR 31.8-64.7] nmol/L in non-hospitalised versus 33.0 [IQR 19.4-54.1] nmol/L in hospitalised patients). Age-, sex- and seasonal variation-adjusted odds ratios for hospital admission were 2.3-2.4 times higher among participants with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, compared to those with normal serum 25(OH)D levels, without any excess mortality risk.
Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation. Widespread measurement of serum 25(OH)D and treating any unmasked insufficiency or deficiency through testing may reduce this risk.
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