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Nicotinamide Riboside Experiences

Nov 26, 2013
Not exactly "Ray Peat", but it would be nice to hear some subjective reports. Nicotinamide riboside is also known as Niagen.


Aug 18, 2013
I bought some and took it and am not a fan. It made all my current nerve issues worse and gave me the shakes. I'm not entirely healthy though and you seem to be, so it might give you a boost. It's got a definite kick, I'll say that.


Thread starter
Nov 26, 2013
I do enjoy a good kick, although I am not quite healthy. Perhaps that's the reason :cool:

David Chung

Mar 12, 2016
I would like some feedback on this topic as well. The main difference between nicotinamde riboside and regular nicotinamide (or niacinamide) is that the nicotinamide riboside does not require NAMPT, an enzyme that researchers say is the bottleneck for generating NAD (which is the molecule with "magical" property).

I have a suspicion that regular niacinamide works as well as niacinamide riboside, but of course, some feedback to confirm this would be nice.


Sep 30, 2016
What does it taste as a powder?, if you know the standard Niacinamide taste...

How much is the prize difference?, it doesn't exist on the market in Sweden, so youl have to import?


Jul 16, 2016
Tempe, Scare-i-zona
What does it taste as a powder?, if you know the standard Niacinamide taste...

How much is the prize difference?, it doesn't exist on the market in Sweden, so youl have to import?

Roughly the same taste; when I bought this stuff, I dissolved it in coffee before workouts and it didn't bother me (Though neither does BCAA, so take that with a grain of salt i.e. may be acquired taste at this point). You can get it at places like Amazon, but it's hella-expensive and from my experience, not worth it. I mean, it didn't seem to do anything, even at double and triple the dose.


Jul 23, 2015
Spokane, Washington
Any other experiences with nicotinamide riboside? I'm curious to try it, but it's expensive, and I'm not sure if there's any interaction with niacinamide.


Mar 13, 2017
The following 2 posts about nicotinamide riboside are from Seeking Alpha:

Post #1

Learning From ChromaDex's High Drama With Top Customer - ChromaDex Inc. (NASDAQ:CDXC) | Seeking Alpha

Jan. 9.17 | About: ChromaDex Inc. (CDXC)

Cabeza Howe

Long/short equity, growth, value, contrarian

Niagen's phenomenal growth is a myth. After all, NR looks just like a very expensive version of vitamin B3.

Elysium has pulled in its future Niagen/pTeroPure demand, thus drying up its future revenue contribution to ChromaDex.

Elysium also played a timing game with ChromaDex to induce huge price concession, likely taking advantage of ChromaDex's channel-stuffing-based sales culture.

Expect weak future quarterly performance, especially Q4 and 1Q17.

Deteriorating customer credit quality likely implies more widespread problem than just Elysium.

In a previous article, I sounded alarm on the stock of ChromaDex (NASDAQ: CDXC) due to its spiking DSO and deteriorating customer credit quality. I laid out a range of possibility on what this could have meant for the company, the stock and investors.

The most benign interpretation as I deduced was a weak Q3. The most severe implication as seen by me was channel stuffing (in article title and main body), or fictitious revenue (via intense discussion with my readers in the comments area).

The company's subsequent Q3 earnings release validated my concern. Q3 net sales collapsed totally, driven by the meltdown of its core ingredients revenue. Q3 net sales declined 43.3% QoQ and 20.4% YoY, respectively, to $5.0 million from Q2's $8.8 million and 3Q15's $6.3 million. Q3's ingredients net sales net sales collapsed to $2.7 million from Q2's $6.2 million (-57% QoQ) and 3Q15's $4.1 million (-36% YoY).

Just compare Q3's net sales performance to Q2's (45% YoY growth, driven by 83% YoY growth in ingredients net sales) and you should have understood why I characterize the Q3 performance as a collapse or meltdown.

Pricing Dispute With Largest Customer

The most shocking revelation from the company's 10-Q was the following:

"We currently have a disagreement with a significant customer, and a disruption in sales to or the ability to collect from this customer, or other significant customers in the future, could materially harm our financial results."

"We currently have a disagreement over the interpretation of certain terms of a supply agreement with a customer that we expect will represent greater than 10% of our net sales for the year ending December 31, 2016. Because of the disagreement, this customer has not paid us approximately $3.0 million for previous purchase orders."

This customer is none other than the company's largest customer, "Customer C", which had an outstanding trade receivable accounting for 48.8% of the total trade receivables, or about $3.2 million, at the end of Q3. And this customer ceased to be the company's largest customer in Q3. Its percentage contribution to net sales went down from Q2's 34.5% to less than 10%, though exact net sales were not disclosed in that filing.

I argued that Customer C was Elysium Health in my previous article. A recent 8-K filing has now confirmed this. This filing made it clear that Elysium's contribution to Q3 net sales amounted to only $180K, or less than 4% of total net sales. And this contribution was entirely attributable to a huge quarter-end purchase order placed in Q2. Elysium didn't place any purchase order in Q3 and Q4. ChromaDex is now suing Elysium for three counts of Breach of Contract as well as one count of Fraudulent Deceit.

So what can we learn from this supplier-customer high drama? Here are some of my thoughts.

1. Niagen's Sustained Growth Is A Myth

Any new products go through an initial phase of phenomenal growth, from zero sales to non-zero sales. Since Niagen was introduced in May 2013, it has gone through a honeymoon period of "phenomenal growth". But that phenomenal growth was due to the low-base-number effect. The challenge is to deliver sustained growth in the long run.

Elysium is supposed to be the key growth engine of Niagen, since this is a company that boasts 7 Nobel Laureates on its Scientific Advisory Board and its Basis product is the most successful among all Niagen supplements due to the company's exceptional marketing prowess.

Now we have learned that Niagen has hit a wall even in a niche that targets affluent consumers who are attracted to the halo (and marketing hype) of famous scientists. Elysium has misrepresented its growth to induce massive price discount from its supplier ChromaDex. Actual growth is far from what you have read in the press or ChromaDex's past quarterly earnings releases.

Then there's CVS, which rolled out a Niagen NR product ("Age Defense") only to withdraw it from the market within less than a year. SNG (Specialty Nutrition Group, Inc.) appears to have followed CVS' footstep. It rolled out the F1RST brand of Niagen in GNC stores a year ago. The product appears to have quietly disappeared from GNC website. As of today (1/8/2017), if you search for Niagen on GNC website, the only product that returns is Jarrow Formulas Nicotinamide Riboside.

CVS, and potentially SNG as well, likely have figured out that marketing an extremely expensive version of vitamin B3 is not exactly a profitable endeavor. And this brings me to my second point.

2. Niagen Is An Expensive Vitamin B3. Pricing Is The Devil.

There's no doubt that Niagen NR is capable of boosting NAD+. But the problem is that all three variations of vitamin B3 are capable of accomplishing the same (at differing efficacy). If you are just slightly familiar with the science of NAD+ precursor metabolism (Preiss-Handler Pathway, NAD+ Salvage Pathway, etc.), you should have known that all three variations of vitamin B3, NR, NAM (Nicotinamide), and NA (Nicotinic Acid) are precursors of NAD+. All three produce NAD+ in the human body.

NAM is quite close to NR in boosting NAD+ in terms of equimolar efficacy. In ChromaDex's own study (mouse gavage/first clinical study by U. Iowa/Queens U./ChromaDex), NR achieves higher NAD+ boosting efficacy than NAM, but the difference was not statistically significant.

For consumers like me, who are wary of NAM's potential sertuin-inhibition effect, they can still use NA to achieve the same effect. NA and NAM are much cheaper than NR. By my calculation, NA can achieve the same level of NAD+ boosting effect at 1/70 the cost of Niagen NR.

NA does cause the unpleasant flushing side effect on some consumers. However, the side effect diminishes after extended period of use. I have used NA for months now and have used to the flushing side effect that has diminished gradually.

Consumers who don't mind NAM's potential sertuin inhibition impact can achieve the same result at even greater savings than using NA. Like NR, NAM is a no-flush version of vitamin B3.

Given NR is so much more expensive compared to its siblings (NAM and NA), there's no wonder that pricing is the key battleground in Niagen's vendor-customer relationship. There will be increasing pricing pressure from customers as the sales stall out. Now that ChromaDex's pricing dispute with Elysium has gone public, other customers might have gained more weapons in their pricing negotiation with ChromaDex.

Investors should also be informed that exercise, fasting, or caloric restriction can also boost NAD+ at virtually zero monetary cost.

3. Elysium Is Playing Timing Game To Gain Price Concession

The Elysium drama is a classical case of timing game being played between a supplier and its customers. When a supplier is under pressure to deliver numbers toward of the end of a quarter or year, it is more willing to make concession to its price. Companies engaged in this period-end pricing concession strategy are basically engaged in the practice of channel stuffing. When customers found this out, they are more likely to hold on their purchase order to the end of a quarter or year to induce price concession from their suppliers.

Elysium placed a monster order on June 28th. Though that order was not delivered, it triggered an outsized order that was placed on June 30th and was fulfilled on July 1st, only one day before the end of ChromaDex's fiscal 2Q16. That was how ChromaDex managed to report ingredients net sales growth of 83% for that quarter.

Of course, Elysium's drama went beyond timing of purchase order. It also involved immense pulling-in of future demand into a single order to induce price concession. But there's no argument that timing tactic was also in play here.

4. Expect Weak Net Sales In Coming Quarters

Elysium has not placed any order in Q3 and Q4. It pulled in its future Niagen demand in 2016 and the supply should be able to last into early 2017. With the demand from this top customer having totally dried up, expect to see weak sales figure in Q4 and 1Q17.

5. Suspicion of Recognizing Disputed Revenue

From the 8-K filing, it's obvious that ChromaDex was willing to address Elysium's pricing concern. With pricing dispute going on, ChromaDex rushed to deliver the huge June 30th order right before the end of Q2. The order was subsequently recognized as Q2 revenue. From the time of delivery of the purchase order to the time 10-Q was filed, the pricing dispute was still going on. This raises the question of if the company has knowingly recognized revenue in dispute. If yes, this would be in violation of GAAP accounting rules.

Of course, if the court rules entirely to the company's favor, the blame could be squarely placed on Elysium's shoulder. But so far we have only heard ChromaDex's one-sided argument. Any counter-claim from Elysium or this court proceeding alone might reveal a lot more regarding what has actually occurred behind the curtain.

There's also the likelihood of a settlement. The company can settle for less than the nominal amount of receivables owed. That would also be a proof that management knowingly recognized revenue in dispute in 2Q16.

6. Deteriorating Credit Quality Implies More Widespread Customer Problem

As pointed out in my previous article, ChromaDex's customer credit quality has deteriorated since 4Q15. This can be seen from the chart below that plots the trend on AR (accounts receivable) and DA (doubtful accounts) allowances since 1Q13.


Chart 1. A/R and Doubtful Accounts Allowances trend 2013-16. (Source: author, based on public filings.)

Don't rush to assume that the DA allowances were due to the Elysium dispute. Recall that the Elysium dispute involved $2,983,350 in purchase order plus some royalty revenue as well. As revealed in the 8-K filing, the total amount in dispute has now amounted to no less than $3,983,350, or almost $4 million.

The $603K DA allowances amounted to nothing when compared to the disputed revenue with Elysium. So, most likely they were attributable to other customers. Some simple math would tell you that the DA allowances were a whopping 18.1% of the total AR balance less what was owed by Elysium, as of the end of Q3.

Such low customer credit quality should not be taken lightly because it is a warning that the quality of the revenue or net sales is questionable as well.

Final Remarks

Elysium Health reported positive clinical trial on its Basis supplement product, which cheered the investing community. But when you think through it, the clinical trial result is nothing unexpected. If you are just slightly familiar with the science of NAD+ precursor metabolism (Preiss-Handler Pathway, NAD+ Salvage Pathway, etc.), you should have been aware that all three variations of vitamin B3, NR, NAM, and NA, serve to produce/boost NAD+ in the human body.

Yes, NR is slightly more potent than NA and NAM in boosting NAD+ on an equimolar basis. But why should that matter much when it is orders of magnitude more expensive than NA and NAM?

The high drama between ChromaDex and its top customer Elysium Health should have taught investors a thing or two. Looking beneath the surface, a lot of red flags are lurking and call for a cautious approach when considering this company as a long-term investment candidate.

Disclosure: I/we have no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no plans to initiate any positions within the next 72 hours.

I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.


Mar 13, 2017
Post #2

ChromaDex: Response To The Claim Niagen Is Just 'Expensive Vitamin B3' - ChromaDex Inc. (NASDAQ:CDXC) | Seeking Alpha

Jan.30.17 | About: ChromaDex Inc. (CDXC)


Biotech, small-cap, micro-cap, long only

Interview with Dr. Charles Brenner, an expert in NAD+ and energy metabolism, as well as a published researcher and inventor of the NR NAD+ related patents.

Published research is demonstrating NR is an effective NAD+ precursor in slowing or stopping neuronal cell death associated with NAD+ depletion.

ChromaDex controls NR technologies from an IP point of view, and developed commercial-scale production of NR. The company has multiple business segments.

Niagen/nicotinamide riboside/NR is a patented metabolism-boosting vitamin that was discovered in 2004. ChromaDex (NASDAQ:CDXC) controls NR technologies from an IP point of view, and developed commercial-scale production of NR. CDXC trademarked NR as NIAGEN while looking to commercialize NR as a patented, high-value compound.

After seeing publication of an article claiming NR is just an expensive vitamin B3 supplement, I decided to contact Dr. Charles Brenner for an expert opinion. Here's a link to his 2004 paper on the discovery of NR as a milk-derived NAD+ precursor vitamin. He later published this 2007 paper establishing NR as a SIR2-activating, lifespan-extending vitamin.

Dr. Brenner is the Roy J. Carver Chair and head of biochemistry at the University of Iowa. He's also a founding co-director of the University of Iowa Obesity Initiative. Researchers around the world have validated and added to his research providing evidence of NR's unique properties in neuroprotection, sirtuin activation, protection against weight gain on a high-fat diet, and improvement of blood glucose and insulin sensitivity. Dr. Brenner is one of five Scientific Advisors for CDXC.

The following interview explains the differences in Niacin/Nicotinic Acid/NA, Nicotinamide/NAM and Niagen/NR/Nicotinamide Riboside. I'm breaking the names out because it can get confusing given how similar they are.

Following is my interview with Dr. Charles Brenner, an expert in NAD+ and energy metabolism, a published researcher, and inventor of the NR NAD+ related patents.

Q: Thank you for taking the time to answer some questions. It is greatly appreciated, especially since I take Niagen daily along with many friends and family. Many don't understand the importance of NAD+. Would you be kind enough to take the time to explain it a bit?

Answer (Charles Brenner): NAD+ is the central mediator of metabolism. No cell can survive without it. NAD+ is required for foods to be converted to energy, for the synthesis of hormones, for DNA to be repaired, and for resistance to stresses like reactive oxygen species. NAD+ declines in aging. Our resiliency and metabolism decline in aging. Boosting NAD+ is a way to maintain youthful metabolism and youthful resiliency.

Q: Why are nicotinamide and niacin in our diet at 15 mg/day?

CB: Deficiency of vitamin B3 causes pellagra - almost no one has pellagra anymore. Low doses of nicotinamide and/or niacin prevent this deficiency.

Q: Why do some people take large doses of niacin?

CB: High doses of niacin, meaning 500 mg to 4 grams/day, improve cholesterol (HDL up, LDL down, free fatty acids down). Unfortunately, high dose niacin causes flushing, which limits its use.

High dose nicotinamide is not as commonly used. It doesn't improve cholesterol.

Q: What is the relationship between NR and NAD+?

CB: NR is one of three vitamin precursors of NAD. NAD is the master regulator of metabolism, which declines in aging. The basic thesis of NR is that NR boosts NAD+ without inhibiting sirtuins (the problem with nicotinamide), without causing flushing (the problem with niacin) and in damaged cells including nerves and muscles. Nicotinamide and niacin can't substitute for NR because they aren't used in all of the same cells and they don't produce the same results. The best example of these compounds not being equivalent is with respect to glycemic control. Nicotinamide and niacin promote insulin insensitivity (which is bad), while NR promotes insulin sensitivity (which staves off type 2 diabetes). So you should not believe anyone who says that the three compounds are equivalent.

Different cells and tissues use different pathways to make NAD. Some cells don't need a vitamin to make NAD and can make NAD by expressing eight different genes that convert the amino acid tryptophan to NAD. It turns out this is the basis for the differences between NR, niacin and nicotinamide and tryptophan. A lot of different cells need NAD. If the genes for a particular NAD precursor are not on, no amount of that precursor can help that cell make NAD.

For example, if any of the eight genes in the tryptophan pathway are not turned on in a particular type of human cell, that cell can't make NAD from any amount of tryptophan. That's part of the reason why tryptophan is such a poor NAD precursor. Tryptophan is an inefficient precursor in some cells and it's simply not an NAD precursor in other cells because the tryptophan pathway genes are off.

Niacin and nicotinamide are both very important compounds in prevention of dietary insufficiency but they cannot substitute for NR as metabolic boosters because there are different genes required to make NAD from these compounds.

Q: The article I asked you to read stated that "All three produce NAD+ in the human body." Please elaborate on this.

CB: There are trillions of cells in the human body of many hundreds of cell types. For example, there are nerve cells, skeletal muscle cells, cardiac cells, several types of pancreatic cells, several types of blood cells, liver cells, etc. What makes a neuron a neuron and not a hepatocyte is the expression of neuronal genes. When we discovered NR as a vitamin, we discovered the NR pathway to NAD. The value proposition of NR depends on the unique ability of NR to maintain and boost NAD in every cell and tissue and, in particular, in tissues undergoing damage and stress.

There are only two steps in the NR pathway to NAD but there are two genes that can do the first step and three genes that can do the second step. The NR pathway never gets turned off. NRK1 is expressed in every cell and tissue, while NRK2 is turned on by cellular damage, particularly in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This means that people supplementing with NR are able to keep NAD levels high in stressed cells that specifically have the NR pathway turned on to deal with cellular stress. Supplementing with niacin and nicotinamide doesn't help because they don't feed into the NR pathway, which is turned on by stresses.

Q: What's the problem with niacin or nicotinamide as a NAD+ precursor?

CB: There are three problems with niacin and two problems with nicotinamide, particularly at high doses.

First, niacin can't be used in lots of tissues because the niacin pathway is not on. The brain and skeletal muscle can't use niacin to boost NAD and these are two of the most important tissues that suffer the ravages of aging. Niacin also causes flushing at high doses and does not efficiently elevate mitochondrial NAD.

The nicotinamide pathway declines in aging, which means you would need ever higher doses to try to maintain your NAD. Second, at high doses, nicotinamide inhibits sirtuins, which is the opposite of NR. NR is a STAC that extends lifespan in model systems.

Q: Can you give me some clarification on model systems?

CB: Basically, we are talking about yeast, flies, worms and rodents - systems in which scientists have total control over the genetics, environment and diet and can carefully look at results. In yeast, nicotinamide shortens lifespan. NR extends yeast lifespan even when they are on a high sugar diet.

In mice and people, both nicotinamide and niacin can induce insulin resistance, which is a precursor to diabetes. NR promotes insulin sensitivity and resistance to diabetic neuropathy. The previous blog on Seeking Alpha suggested that people could take either nicotinamide or niacin to get the same benefits of NR. That's just utterly inconsistent with facts. NR is a STAC - to my knowledge the only bona fide one in the marketplace - I don't count resveratrol because that has been pretty much debunked. Nicotinamide is a sirtuin inhibitor and niacin can't contribute to brain or muscle NAD.

Q: The previous article did some calculations about the efficiency of NR versus nicotinamide and niacin, justifying why the individual wanted to take particular amounts of low cost vitamins in place of NR. You were the senior author of the clinical study. Were those calculations correct?

CB: No. The Seeking Alpha blogger did a calculation of how much more nicotinamide or niacin in order to have the activity of NR in a mouse's liver. The paper is here.

It's well known that niacin and nicotinamide work in liver. The problem again is niacin can't be used by muscle or brain and that damaged tissues induce the NR pathway in order to maintain function. Niacin isn't used by all tissues and high dose nicotinamide inhibits sirtuins. His premise was false because it was based on liver data. He's not going to get any benefit to damaged nerves or muscle so his idea is simply invalid.

NR is the only NAD-boosting compound that elevates metabolism, protects damaged nerves, extends lifespan in mice and other model systems, and increases insulin sensitivity. Inexpensive NAD precursors are not STACs and cannot substitute for NR. We are dealing with an aging population with a high incidence of chronic diseases that involve inflammation, insulin insensitivity, neuropathy and heart diseases, all of which can potentially be addressed uniquely by NR. You can be assured that there is no other NAD precursor that can do what NR does.

Having Dr. Brenner take the time to explain a bit more about Niagen was very helpful. It's clear that its benefits can't be duplicated by the other B vitamins.

Published research is demonstrating NR is an effective NAD+ precursor in slowing or stopping neuronal cell death associated with NAD+ depletion. Not only does Niagen appear to be an anti-aging ingredient, there is research being published showing neuroprotection. Following are some highlights.

Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection:

Additional studies with nicotinamide riboside in models of Alzheimer's disease indicate bioavailability to brain and protective effects, likely by stimulation of brain NAD synthesis.

Dr. Jeffrey Milbrandt published a study titled SARM1 activation triggers axon degeneration locally via NAD+ destruction. This study clearly shows the harm when NAD+ is low.

Along the same lines as the study Dr. Milbrandt published is one titled "Neuronal death induced by misfolded prion protein is due to NAD+ depletion and can be relieved in-vitro and in-vivo by NAD+ replenishment":

We propose the development of NAD(+) replenishment strategies for neuroprotection in prion diseases and possibly other protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases.

Of the ongoing and upcoming human clinical trials of NR, several of them deal with neuroprotection. Thorne Research and the Mayo Clinic are running a trial dealing with concussion. Kansas University will be running an Alzheimer's Disease trial. UT Health Science Center in Texas will run one dealing with Mild Cognitive Impairment. These will be interesting trials to watch.

NR Human Clinical Trials 2016 - 2017


Checking clinicaltrials.gov periodically will show you current status of human trials of nicotinamide riboside/NR.

ChromaDex has Multiple Business Segments

ChromaDex doesn't just deal with ingredient technologies. It provides analytical services such as contaminant testing. It also provides consulting services to guide clients through the regulatory requirements in the food, dietary supplement, consumer product and pharmaceutical industries. It is the leading provider of phytochemical reference standards, botanical reference materials, and research grade materials for the natural products industry. Its relationship with various universities and research institutions allows it to become aware of and acquire early stage ingredient technologies that are protected by intellectual property.

What I find of most interest are its ingredients for sale since I have been using two of them, Niagen and pterostilbene since May 2016 with very noticeable results. There are many sources to purchase them if you take a look at Amazon.

Its portfolio of ingredient technologies includes NIAGEN nicotinamide riboside "NR," pTeroPure pterostilbene and PURENERGY, a caffeine-pTeroPure co-crystal, IMMULINA and AnthOrigin.


It's difficult to predict how well Niagen will produce revenue in the immediate future now that the company is in a legal fight with one of its major Niagen/NR purchasers (Elysium). We simply don't know how fast other supplement companies will ramp up their sales. A patent has recently been issued to Procter & Gamble (NYSE:PG) which includes NR in cosmetics. It's difficult to say if or when it starts ordering product. It could easily become the largest buyer if it starts to market an anti-aging skin care product with NR in it.

There is a lot of interest in NR, but, it's difficult to predict what share price will do short term, although, long term looks promising since it has a solid history as a company and a good business plan.

My primary interest in the company is the ingredients Niagen and pterostilbene since I take both. The lengthy debate about Niagen vs. Niacinamide in the comments section of my first article on ChromaDex is why I think periodic updates are important. Not everyone understands the differences.

Author's note: Please scroll back to the top and click to follow me if you like my work.

Disclosure: I/we have no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no plans to initiate any positions within the next 72 hours.

I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.


Jul 13, 2014
Is this the same as Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Hydride


May 1, 2016
One benefit I would consider is NR (potentially) doesn't cause the energy crash effect when blood sugar runs low which Niacinamide does and is known to do by many here trying it. It inhibits usage of FFA's for energy which is what you switch to when blood sugar gets low, so I presume ones entire metabolism goes down temporarily in such a situation, explaining the subjective energy crash.

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