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Adrenaline Suppresses The Immune System And Promotes Viral Infections

haidut

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The timing of this study just could not have been better considering the current coronavirus epidemic. The study below demonstrates that both adrenaline and noradrenaline suppressed the immune system and both increases vulnerability to viral infection as well as increasing mortality after the infection takes hold. Conversely, blocking the adrenergic receptors increased survival rates by more than 40% even when the animals were inoculated with lethal amounts of a viral load. The official explantion of the study is that adrenaline/noradrenaline increase inflammatory signalling through activation of the beta-adrenergic receptors and this results in suboptimal immune system response. However, I think the much more likely explanation is the increased lipolysis as a result of activated adrenergic system. The role of elevated NEFA/FFA in vulnerability to infections and subsequent death from sepsis and/or cardiac/ischemic events is well-established.

In terms of treatments, aside from the obvious choice of beta blockers I think aspirin and niacinamide would be good options too considering their inhibitory effects on lipolysis. And of course, good old salt is perhaps the most widely accessible option. Interestingly enough, increased dietary salt intake has already been demonstrated to have a strong immune-boosting effect.

β2-adrenergic signals downregulate the innate immune response and reduce host resistance to viral infection | Journal of Experimental Medicine | Rockefeller University Press

"...In humans, psychological stress has been associated with a higher risk of infectious illness. However, the mechanisms by which the stress pathway interferes with host response to pathogens remain unclear. We demonstrate here a role for the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR), which binds the stress mediators adrenaline and noradrenaline, in modulating host response to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Mice treated with a β2-AR agonist were more susceptible to MCMV infection. By contrast, β2-AR deficiency resulted in a better clearance of the virus, less tissue damage, and greater resistance to MCMV. Mechanistically, we found a correlation between higher levels of IFN-γ production by liver natural killer (NK) cells and stronger resistance to MCMV. However, the control of NK cell IFN-γ production was not cell intrinsic, revealing a cell-extrinsic downregulation of the antiviral NK cell response by adrenergic neuroendocrine signals. This pathway reduces host immune defense, suggesting that the blockade of the β2-AR signaling could be used to increase resistance to infectious diseases."
 

revenant

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Kind of off topic but... I was wondering about adrenaline and the immune system when watching some Wim Hof (the iceman) documentary. I get that his breathing exercises (which increase adrenaline) help him withstand extreme cold, which may be useful in some cases, but in one experiment they injected him with endotoxin after the same exercises, and apparently markers of inflammation were much lower than in control subjects. They said this is a good thing, but doesn't it just mean that his immune system was compromised? If you're being injected with endotoxin, shouldn't inflammation markers go up (temporarily)? I don't understand the reasoning why immunosuppression would be good.
 

Hans

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how to reduce adrenaline? i think i have too much
Excess copper can convert too much dopamine to noradrenaline, so lowering it, if it's in excess, can help. Lowering stress is obviously a big one.
Magnesium, salt, progesterone and inosine can lower it. Adaptogens such as Tulsi, Rhodiola, phosphatidylserine, etc., can also help lower it.
 

theLaw

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haidut

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Any ideas on what signs to look for to indicate that someone has consumed too much salt?

I've only experienced diarrhea or nausea at very high doses (1 tsp with 8 ounces liquid), but I've eaten 2 tsp with a large meal with no issues.

Thanks!:D

I think urine color changes and becomes darker with higher salt intake. Also, elevated BP and heart rate, and sometimes even sedation if the dose is too high.
 

jamies33

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Kingpinguin

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I think urine color changes and becomes darker with higher salt intake. Also, elevated BP and heart rate, and sometimes even sedation if the dose is too high.

Is this something bad? My urine is usually quite dark. I consume lots of sodium. Dont drink water that much. Drink lots of coffee, orange juice and dairy. Dont feel stressed or anything. Just curious if i should be worried.
 

sugarbabe

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I am amazed by how many people do not understand that being in a constant state of fright or fight or flight is going to absolutely destroy immunity. But that is what the governments want. People are way way more easily controlled when you scare them to death.
 

GutFeeling

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So blocking the β2 receptors prevents theses effects? Mirtazapine would help? If I'm not mistaking blocking theses receptors increase Noradrenaline, and dopamine to the same extent (at least with mirtazapine) that's why I'm a bit confused.

Mirtazapine has antihistamine, α2-blocker, and antiserotonergic activity.[7][76] It is specifically a potent antagonist or inverse agonist of the α2A-, α2B-, and α2C-adrenergic receptors, the serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and the histamine H1 receptor.[7][76
 

Velve921

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Is clonidine still considered a good method for reducing adrenaline as well?
 

Kunstruct

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Interesting. There appear to be a small amount of people that respond the opposite to calming substances, especially herbs. Or maybe it could have been excipients?
Yeah, I heard also that could be the case where some people react negatively.
In my case I had a bag with pure rhodiola powder, so there where no recipients.
 

schultz

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Kind of off topic but... I was wondering about adrenaline and the immune system when watching some Wim Hof (the iceman) documentary. I get that his breathing exercises (which increase adrenaline) help him withstand extreme cold, which may be useful in some cases, but in one experiment they injected him with endotoxin after the same exercises, and apparently markers of inflammation were much lower than in control subjects. They said this is a good thing, but doesn't it just mean that his immune system was compromised? If you're being injected with endotoxin, shouldn't inflammation markers go up (temporarily)? I don't understand the reasoning why immunosuppression would be good.

I have been thinking about this lately as well. I meant to ask Ray about it, but here is what I think of it thus far. Our body has evolved to detect LPS, which is sort of an easy way for us to detect GN bacteria in general and possibly bacterial infections. The presence of LPS does not necessarily mean we have a bacterial infection, however the body still responds to it like we do. The question I wanted to ask Ray is does LPS actually cause damage (like how PUFA is prone to lipid peroxidation) or is it that our body is just reacting to it like crazy and that causes the damage (sort of a mainstream view, like the "cytokine storm" idea). To put another way, assuming a person is injected with pure LPS, (so no bacteria or protein fragments) would it beneficial to artificially suppress TLR4 in order to prevent increased cytokines? Suppressing TLR4 would presumabely prevent clean-up of the LPS. Would that delayed clean-up cause damage?

Note: As I understand it, LPS is sort of a purified thing whereas endotoxin is the fragment 'coat' of the bacteria, which contains LPS but also contains some other things, like proteins fragments for example. The two are not quite synonymous. LPS is what they use in the lab to experiment with inflammation, which is why it's purified.
 

Opioidus

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May 22, 2019
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The timing of this study just could not have been better considering the current coronavirus epidemic.
Most cases that die from coronavirus are the result of a cytokine storm, which is an overreaction by the immune system. Immunosuppressive drugs are being used as a treatment for cytokine storms. One's intention should be to weaken the immune response to the point that the virus doesn't get to infect the entire body but also to the point that the immune reaction doesn't cause too much inflammation and destruction. I personally have a bunch of prednisolone for when I get sick.
 

Tenacity

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My personal experience tells me this is true. When I was a child I had one wart on my finger, and had it until I was about 18, while I was in the midst of discovering Peat's work. I did not have a reoccurrence until I became sick with dysautonomia and POTS, the symptoms of which are the result of increased catecholamines. Soon after first becoming sick I had grown two new warts, one on my forehead and another on a finger on my left hand. Fortunately, the one on my forehead has since shrunk and disappeared, although the one on my finger remains. Some people think POTS is an autoimmune disease, which is hilarious because it actually seems to be trashing my immunity.
 

ChristineHou

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Jul 8, 2018
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Excess copper can convert too much dopamine to noradrenaline, so lowering it, if it's in excess, can help. Lowering stress is obviously a big one.
Magnesium, salt, progesterone and inosine can lower it. Adaptogens such as Tulsi, Rhodiola, phosphatidylserine, etc., can also help lower it.
Are you talking bio available copper ? Or unbound copper?
 
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