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Zeta Potential In The Blood

Discussion in 'Meet & Greet' started by StephanF, Jul 8, 2014.

  1. StephanF

    StephanF Member

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    Hi, I stumbled upon Dr. Ray Peat while preparing a lecture on the discoveries by Dr. Gilbert Ling and Prof. Gerald Pollack on the structured water. I have known Ling's discoveries for quite some times but had no idea what health consequences this had until listening to Peat's YouTube videos!

    Now there is another very important health secret and it has also to do with water, but not in the cells, where it is structured, but in blood, where it is highly liquid! This has to do with the proper balance of electrolytes and their valence ratios. Thomas M. Riddick wrote about this in his book 'Control of Colloid Stability through Zeta Potential - With a closing chapter on its relationship to cardiovascular disease' and can be found here:

    Thomas M. Riddick's Book

    His findings on cardiovascular health were applied by Dr. T.C. McDaniel, who celebrated his 100th birthday this May (2014). Dr. McDaniel also wrote a book with the title 'Disease Reprieve', in which he wrote about his experience as a student of medicine and his own trouble with heart arrhythmia, which he was able to get rid of after reading about the Zeta Potential in Riddick's book. Dr. McDaniel sells a supplement 'Zeta Aid' which is an anionic surfactant that stabilizes the blood. He claims that this will get rid of heart disease.

    T.C. McDaniel's Website

    So it is interesting to note, that there are two completely different types of water in our bodies, the highly structured water in the cells, and the highly optimized liquid, the blood, a suspension stabilized by the Zeta Potential of the dissolved electrolytes.

    Only to mention it briefly, aluminum chloride (AlCl[sub]3[/sub], valence ratio 3:1) will weaken the Zeta Potential, while potassium citrate (valence ratio 1:3) will strengthen the Zeta Potential.
     
  2. Such_Saturation

    Such_Saturation Member

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    My impression is that capillaries structure blood like in Gerald Pollack's little submerged cilinder, pumping with the energy from infrared light.
     
  3. OP
    StephanF

    StephanF Member

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    Such_Saturation: But that only concerns the capillaries. A strong Zeta Potential is of utmost importance. Go to the Riddick's book website and look at the chapter concerning cardiovascular health. For me this was an eye-opener as is Dr. Peat's contributions right now (I am just beginning and not able to grasp the extend of Dr. Peat's health info).

    A little side-note: It is interesting how the cardiovascular system avoids fluid turbulence. Usually, in a continuous flow, laminar flow in a tube will become turbulent after a certain length of flow, depending on the Reynolds number of the fluid and the roughness of the tube wall. However, since the heart pumps not continuously but in pulses, the flow stops before the onset of turbulence, and then it starts anew.

    My observations with salt are mixed. If I had a salty meal, especially in the evening, I can hear blood gushing in my left ear. I assume that is due to tissue swelling. My understanding is also that the body keeps the blood at homeostasis, so if the level of salt increases, it will push the salt and water into the tissue and I think it pushes this into the interstitial space between the cells. One then has to drink a lot of water, best reverse osmosis filtered or distilled, to slowly wash the excess salt out of the body via the lymphatic system. A good indicator is the coloration of the urine. If it is brown, one is dehydrates and the kidneys are working hard to eliminate the salts. I have read that the urine should have only a faint coloration. Now some (or all) of this seems to be in contradiction to what Dr. Peat is saying. He says one has to lower the water inside the cells and consume adequate amounts of salt and not to drink too much water. Also, salt will compete with the water stored in the cell's protein. If one gets dehydrated, the blood thickens, and the Zeta Potential can weaken due to 'salting out'. That is dangerous and can lead to stroke or heart attacks.

    I do understand that one can overdo it with drinking water, dilute out the needed electrolytes and swelling up the cells. But will that not only happen if there is a hormonal imbalance (the swelling of the protein in the cells)? Or is it due to consumption of unsaturated fats?

    If I eat a lot of salty foods, then I can easily gain 2 pounds of weight in a single day but loosing that in a couple of days again by restricting salt intake and drinking lots of water.

    A lot of what Dr. Peat lectures makes sense and the rest I am not able to understand yet. I also have sleep apnea (central & obstructive), so I am intrigued by what people are reporting here on this forum.

    Listening to Dr. Peat, I learnt that my son (19) has suffered from low thyroid: he had ‘growing pains’ in his legs when he was little, had trouble concentrating in school and still has knee troubles. Also cold feet and hands. Every single symptom can be rooted back to hypothyroidism! I have ordered thyroid supplements from Swanson Vitamins and we both will give it a try, since I am probably also low on my thyroid function.
     
  4. Such_Saturation

    Such_Saturation Member

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    I am quite looking forward to reading that in the morning. Personally I don't drink water but the salt in food and milk is still insufficient to prevent headaches, angina and orthostatic intolerance. My impression is that salt keeps water in the blood and out of cells preventing swelling. The cells work to restructure after some extra salt enters them and that also boosts metabolism. Furthermore insufficient salt will trigger a reactive tightening of the vessels to maintain pressure (for much water has leaked out of them) and other electrolytes will be sacrificed by the kidneys to keep their ratios to the decreased salt ions' constant.
     
  5. Mossy

    Mossy Member

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    Has anyone else had experience with Zeta Aid? I'd be curious to know how this supplement would work for a weak heart and hypothyroidism in general, not necessarily an arrhythmia. It seems it could help with colds feet, if it improves blood quality and circulation.
     
  6. JackHanma

    JackHanma Member

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    Isn't it just over-hyped/over-priced potassium that you add to water?
     
  7. Travis

    Travis Member

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    It seems if there is some speculation as to the role of the ζ‐potential on the blood–brain barrier, but most published articles seem most concerned with how it effects red blood cells and coagulation—articles such as this:

    Jan, Kung-Ming. "Role of surface electric charge in red blood cell interactions." The Journal of general physiology (1973)

    This is a nice article, well‐formatted and typeset.

    Red blood cells apparently are coated in polysialic acid, a post‐translational modification linked to the red blood cell proteins at lysine side chains. Due to the carboxyl groups of polysialic acid, red blood cells have a net negative charge in water making them repel eachother. This repulsion prevents aggregation and lowers viscosity—perhaps reducing the cardiac force required to circulate blood.

    'The negative surface charge of human RBC's results primarily from the presence of ionogenic carboxyl groups of sialic acids on the cell surface (24, 25). Neuraminidase, which cleaves sialic acids from sialoprotein (26), reduces markedly the electrophoretic mobility of RBC's (Fig. 1), and the residual mobility may be ascribed primarily to the other carboxyl groups of the surface (25, 27). The contribution of cationic (e.g. amino) groups of surface proteins to the zeta potential is probably not significant since most aldehydes, which tend to bind the cationic groups of proteins (28), do not cause any detectable change in the electrophoretic behavior of the normal or N-treated RBC's (25, 29).' ―Kung-Ming

    The removal of polysialic acid from the surface red blood cells can be accomplished with an enzyme called neuraminidase. Removing polysialic acid decreases the electrophoretic mobility of the red blood cells. So in an applied electric field, the cells treated longest—having less sialic acid—moved the slowest.

    electrophoresis.png click to embiggen: Image depicting reduction in red blood cell electrophoretic migration upon loss of sialic acid.

    Knowing the electrophoretic migration and viscosity—also measured—they could then measure the ζ‐potential using the Helmholtz–Smoluchowski equation. The ζ‐potential was reduced in neuraminidase‐treated cells.

    They even added a polymer to the cells, imbedded with osmium, so they could take electron micrographs. High ζ‐potential normal cells can be seen on the left and de‐sialated cells on the right:

    dextran.png

    Also found were massive changes in sedimentation rates. Cells which don't actively repel each‐other with negative charges tend to aggregate and precipitate out of solution.

    sedimentation.png

    And incidentally, the authors cite Pollack:

    'The dielectric constant was measured by the alternating current bridge method (16) in an instrument system described by Pollack et al. (17).' ―Kung-Ming

    'The finding that dextrans did not alter the dielectric constant of water is in agreement with the results of Allgen and Roswall (23) but not those of Pollack and his colleagues (17).' ―Kung-Ming

    But this turns out to be a different Pollack.

    'It has long been recognized that vertebrate red blood cells (RBC's) are negatively charged and that they move to the anode in an applied electric field.' ―Kung-Ming

    'The electrophoretic mobility of normal RBC's in saline averaged −1.12, which gives a zeta potential of −15.0 mV. After neuraminidase treatment, RBC's showed a marked reduction of electrophoretic mobility in saline (Fig. 1). Maximum decrease in the electrophoretic mobility to −0.1 was obtained with the use of 15 μg of neuraminidase per ml of 1% RBC suspension, incubated for 60 min at 37°C.' ―Kung-Ming

    'Thus, N-treated RBC's showed faster sedimentation rates in various dextrans than normal RBC's (Fig. 5).' ―Kung-Ming

    'These results suggest that the electrostatic repulsive force extends from the surfaces of normal RBC's for at least 16 nm, preventing the aggregation of normally charged cells by the short Dextran 20. [...] Indirect evidence has also indicated the existence of such long range electrostatic forces in the equilibrium gels of tobacco mosaic virus (31) and the myosin filaments of the striated muscle (32).' ―Kung-Ming

    'Thus, the seemingly small electric repulsive force of 10⁻¹ dynes/cm² may be expected to play a significant role in affecting RBC aggregation.' ―Kung-Ming
     
  8. GAF

    GAF Member

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    "Dr. McDaniel sells a supplement 'Zeta Aid' which is an anionic surfactant that stabilizes the blood. He claims that this will get rid of heart disease."

    A few weeks ago, I looked up "anionic surfactant" and it appears to be a detergent.

    Can you explain this term? What it is? What it does? How it is supposed to help?
     
  9. Travis

    Travis Member

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    An anion is a negatively‐charged molecule, and a surfactant is a biphasic molecule having a lipid‐soluble moiety and a water‐soluble moiety. Surfactants can bring lipids into water solution by imbedding their lipid half into the fat droplet, leaving a polar head on the surface—something water can grab. Water is polar, having a partial (δ) negative charge on the oxygen atom and a δ‐positive charge on the hydrogens; this gives water the ability to adhere to other charged molecules. For this reason all small δ‐charged molecules are soluble in water, and the anionic head of the surfactant especially soluble since as an 'anion' it would have a full integer charge (i.e. X¹⁻, X²⁻, X³⁻, ect.).

    Since the ζ‐potential keeps blood proteins from adhering to themselves, and perhaps even the arterial wall, you can see why such things are marketed for cardiovascular disease. I think you could expect certain molecules to adhere to blood proteins with one end (lipophilic) while increasing the ζ‐potential with the other (anionic).
     
  10. Mossy

    Mossy Member

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    I'm really new to this product, so I'm not certain. If it is, I can still see it being convenient and helpful to those with an arrhythmia--if it indeed does help that, as stated-- but, maybe overkill to those who don't and can get potassium through food. I can say, though, that with food I do find it difficult to get the recommended amount of daily potassium listed on cronometer.com. Maybe this could possibly help.
     
  11. Travis

    Travis Member

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    Aspirin increases the ζ‐ potential of serum albumin, perhaps decreasing coagulation in that way.. .

    Omidvar, Zahra. "Investigations with spectroscopy, zeta potential and molecular modeling of the non-cooperative behaviour between cyclophosphamide hydrochloride and aspirin upon interaction with human serum albumin: Binary and ternary systems from the view point of multi-drug therapy." Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics (2011)
     
  12. Mossy

    Mossy Member

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    Thanks Travis. Appreciate the detail and explanations. From what I can gather from your posts, it seems this could be a beneficial product, or at least worth trying.
     
  13. robknob

    robknob Member

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    So I guess vit E would also increase zeta due to its blood thinning property.

    I'm somewhat confused as to why potassium is considered good and sodium bad, as it seems ultimately it is the anionic/cationic ratio that matters. Is it just that potassium is a weaker cation than sodium? If it is just the ratio that is of concern, it would seem that drinking carbonated/citrated water would be better than taking potassium bicarb/citrate.

    Also, I found this summary...http://www.emmersonchiropractic.com/health_library/pdf_articles/zeta_potential_in_healing_an.pdf
     
  14. Travis

    Travis Member

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    I was thinking about that myself. I do know that K⁺ is smaller than Na⁺, yet it is thought to have a larger hydrated shell; I think this is because its size better matches an ordered structure of water molecules, allowing it to fit inside it better. I think this has probably been studied in great detail; the water layer around K⁺ could perhaps almost be considered almost a 'clathrate'―although this word is generally used for nonpolar gasses.

    Here is a clathrate from one of Linus Pauling's articles:

    pauling.png click to embiggen: Classic Pauling trying to explain anesthesia with clathrates.

    And a better one from NIST, showing the individual water molecules:

    [​IMG]

    Looks like methane at the center or these clathrates, in the photo, but the idea is similar. Different sized ions of the same charge can have a different packing arrangement with water molecules. Potassium apparently forms a larger and more highly‐ordered water shell around it than sodium (perhaps making one wonder how much of the increase in blood pressure after consuming Na⁺ is simply a decrease in blood density, or an increase in volume.)

    So if K⁺ and Na⁺ have the same formal charge and Na⁺ has a smaller hydrated shell around it, then Na⁺ will have a higher absolute ζ‐potential. Since this is a greater positive ζ‐potential, it will more effectively counteract the negative ζ‐potential of blood proteins.

    Experimental data is scarce for the ζ‐potential of blood proteins, but I found one on silica. Like blood proteins—but much smaller—silica has a negative charge.

    zeta.png click to embiggen: Graph showing Na⁺ having greater positive ζ‐potential than K⁺.

    I think the confusion has much to do with imprecise language. When speaking of the ζ‐potential, most authors seem to be implying 'ζ‐potential of platelets and serum albumin'―which is negative. In the same article, they then often speak of the ζ‐potential of ions without always making explicit whether this is positive or negative.

    'The effect of counterion concentration arises from at least two effects: (i) The counterion may be adsorbed to the surface, or into the Stern layer, and thereby change the net surface charge density that must be shielded by the diffuse region. [...] (ii) Changing the thickness of the electrical double layer [the water shell] changes the ζ‐potential directly, even for a fixed surface charge density.' ―Kirby

    Since we want our blood platelets and albumin to have a high negative ζ‐potential, so that they repel eachother, I think we ought to avoid ions with high positive ζ‐potentials. Of course Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, and especially Al³⁺ have a higher ζ‐potential than Na⁺, this ion has a higher surface charge ( ζ) than potassium in water. I think this is due to the hydrate shell―sodium having a thinner H₂O‐shell leading to a greater in magnitude ζ‐potential, and hence a greater propensity to stick to blood proteins.

    Pauling, Linus. "A Molecular Theory of General Anesthesia: Anesthesia is attributed to the formation in the brain of minute hydrate crystals of the clathrate type." Science (1961)
    Kirby, Brian J. "Zeta potential of microfluidic substrates: 1. Theory, experimental techniques, and effects on separations." Electrophoresis (2004)
     
  15. robknob

    robknob Member

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    Thanks for the clarification.

    FWIW The low sodium V8 juice has potassium chloride added, 8oz has about 900 mg potassium, I find with just apinch of salt, it tastes 10x better
     
  16. BigYellowLemon

    BigYellowLemon Member

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    Interesting to think what FFA and triglycerides do in the blood, it could be one way stress is a self sustaining process.

    Stress -> Fatty acid release -> Bad (or possibly good) effect on blood zeta potential.
     
  17. michael94

    michael94 Member

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    1/2 tsp salt dissolved in 8 oz luke warm/warm water is good
     
  18. Bobber Anderson

    Bobber Anderson Member

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    Lol

    I bought some of this and currently trying it out. Not really sure if it will have any effects. I will update here. So far it's making me feel slightly better (I guess?), but could be placebo.
     
  19. Syncopated

    Syncopated Member

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    Another area of research is the hydrogen bond angle. Zeta potential is more complicated than cation or anionic surfactant. Acids and bases also are variables in Zeta potential. Any sweet distilled or RO water will have an increased Zeta potential and ability to suspend minerals and proteins.
     
  20. Syncopated

    Syncopated Member

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    The reason blood wasn't designed turbulent in the arteries is the main heart would quickly wear away.

    I have read conflicting research on Zeta potential, one website said the heart arteries are turbulent creating a Vortex and increasing Zeta potential.

    Zeta potential research can become drawn out so don't waste too much time studying!
     
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