Towards Ending Migraines

Discussion in 'Logs' started by tara, Mar 29, 2014.

  1. tara

    tara Member

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    Hi,

    I might try and keep a record in this thread of what I'm thinking and trying. Comments welcome.
    I'm late 40s, female, a single parent, work part-time, lose several days a month to migraine.
    Time is scarce. As with all parents, balancing my needs with kids needs is always an issue. :):.

    My biggest health issue is migraine. More detail in this thread (not sure if I'm linking right):
    viewtopic.php?f=52&t=3501

    So, here are some of my current hypotheses on on why I get migraines - I'm guessing some or all of these contribute:

    1. Brain short of fuel or conditions for effiently using it.
    2. Lots of stress over a lifetime from undernourishment, blood sugar dips, cold, too little sleep, too much hiking, psycho- social stresses, etc -> chronically high adrenaline, estrogen
    3. Blows to head -> Possible incompletely healed structural damage (no concussions, but banged hard a few times). Chronicly tight neck and shoulder muscles trying to protect head. Possibly contributing to chronic hyperventilation (hyperventilation is short-term protective in head injury).
    4. Hyperventilation + low minerals -> nerve and vascular misfunction
    5. Lots of PUFA -> swelling brain tissue and increased sensitivity to excitotoxic glutamate neurotransmitters, especially when more PUFA released during acute stress
    6. Supersensitivity to serotonin and some other neurotransmitters (like in morphine withdrawal, possibly during endorphin withdrawal after acute stresses?)
    7. Too much gluten -> damaged gut barrier -> endotoxin -> high estrogen -> not enough progesterone to protect nerves. Also inadequate nutrient absorption
    8. Other hard to digest food -> high serotonin
    9. Incompletely digested dairy proteins (opiod-like) entering bloodstream and crossing weakened blood-brain barrier -> intolerance, fuzzy headedness. The dairy protein issue is not an RP idea, but I think the gut and brain barriers are.
    10. Intermittently, too little protein, calcium, and other micronutrients to support healthy metabolism and liver function -> unstable blood sugar, estrogen
    11. Possibly an inherited predisposition to migraine - some family members have related issues.
    Anything else?

    So if these are causes, the following might help, right?:

    1 - 2. Regular food. Eat lots morning-midday. I usually manage this now, except when sleeping. Salt food and drink generously according to taste.

    2. Keep warm. Try to avoid pushing myself too hard physically. Get regular sleep. Most of the time I get 7-8 hrs sleep, but if I get a chance to go out socialising in the evening, I find it hard to get to sleep at a good hour.

    3. Massage and yoga could help tight muscles. I only manage these occaisionally at the moment.
    Magnesium - I drink OJ, eat some greens, and supplement mag glycinate, carbonate, and sometimes slop a bit of mag sulp or mag chlor on skin. But not sure if I'm absorbing enough. I gave up on mag sulph baths when I got too tired/relaxed to get out a few times.

    4. Practicing breathing. This is much improved over last 1 1/2 years, but could probably get better. Breathing and sleep are much improved by keeping my mouth shut at night. I also strapped my chest a couple of times early on to help retrain abdominal breathing. Holding breath after coughing, sneezing, yawning etc. Occasinally practice 'steps' method - might be good to do more. And/or bag-breathing. I aim to try a dry CO2 bath, but a little nervous in case dilating blood vessels triggers a migraine. Higher CO2 should lead to improved oxygen supply throughout, calmer nerves, dilated blood vessels throughout (will this improve or worsen head?), improved digestion, improved calcium metabolism, ...

    5. Aspirin, niacinamide to reduce FFA PUFA release. Currently doing niacinamide c. 100mg 2xday, aspirin 500mg a few times a week. I have been eating much reduced PUFA for the last year, but had a lot before then.

    6. Try to reduce excess stress. Try cyproheptadine?

    7-8-9: Go for easy to digest food. I seldom have obvious GI reaction to foods other than gas with onions and potatoes, and delayed symptoms can be hard to pin to a specific food. And eliminating too many foods makes it hard to keep well nourished. I feel good in other ways if I eat onions and potatoes, so reluctant to cut them further. This is tricky.
    Carrot salad. I aim to do this every day, usu hit 5-6/week. Charcoal - I usu do this 1/1-2 wks
    Progest-E

    10. Might be good to check in nutrition calculator to get an idea of what I might still be short of, but so far not found time to measure and record this in detail.
    Would probably be good to track temp and pulse for a while, but similarly hard to find time to do this regularly. Temp measured in car on way to or from work usu 36.3-36.7.
    Thyroid supplement? Neither synthetic not NDT avail without script. Doctor not convinced. May try to find a another doctor eventually.

    11. Can't change the past, butcurrent factors might yield to intervention.

    Thoughts welcome.
    Tara
     
  2. charlie

    charlie The Law & Order Admin

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    Tara, :welcome

    You will get through this and I am confident you can turn this around. :)

    Ray Peat use to have migraines, he fixed his, you can fix yours.

    Exactly.
    Progesterone heals the brain. Thyroid, red light to the head, plenty of sugar, CO2, aspirin, everything Ray Peat can make things regenerate. :P
    We inherit our parents metabolisms. Their metabolism is broken the same way you are just further down the line.
    Constant fuel for optimal healing. But not too much, but some times too much when the body calls for it. Hope that makes sense. :)

    Just take it easy when you can. :)
    Check out haiduts thread on thyroid surrogate.

    haidut said it I think, its a miracle drug, for some.

    Always good to track nutrients, pulse and temps. Dont stress over it though. I found myself stressing over it and dropped it. I will check it sometimes though.

    The organism is only as good as the present environment. Change the environment to a regenerative state and watch wonderful things start to happen. :hattip
     
  3. OP
    tara

    tara Member

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    Thanks Charlie for your encouragement.
    Ray's success with his own migrines is one of the things that attracted me to this approach. I've been doing as many of these things as I can figure out lately. Will keep trying to add more.

    Unfortunately, I seem to risk adverse reactions from to much milk or coffee - though I'd love to have more.
    I've been following Haidut's thyroid surrogate thread with interest. I've been using niacinamide regularly and aspirin intemittently, but have had adverse reactions (I think) to higher doses of niacinamide and more than little coffee.

    I'm constantly trying to figure out whether I need more food or not - wish I could read my fuel guage reliably :): Migraines mess with appetite.
     
  4. charlie

    charlie The Law & Order Admin

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    As things improve you should be able to handle more milk and coffee. Slow and easy wins the race. :)
     
  5. aguilaroja

    aguilaroja Member

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    Excuse my over-generalizations and bluntness.

    My experience is that:

    Migraines in adult females is most commonly due to estrogen excess, which is relieved by bio-identical progesterone. The (Kenogen) Progest-E Complex is the most effective and economical source of progesterone. If it's not available, search for a different good quality preparation. If readily feasible and available, think about getting baseline blood or saliva progesterone/estrogen testing and then supplementing.

    If the migraines are or were related certain parts of the menstrual cycle, or other estrogen excess problems, the data are even more supportive. For instance, some women when thinking back recognize that things started or worsened after using estrogen contraceptive pills.

    From the description from the other posting, low thyroid function seems likely. Keep tracking & recording the resting temperature and pulse periodically. Those are good guideposts in addition to symptoms.

    Low thyroid function and estrogen excess tend to reinforce each other. Fortunately, progesterone support and thyroid support also work together. There are many good choices for supportive maneuvers, some of which you are applying. It's easier to identify the most supportive factors by introducing things one at a time. "Natural" Progesterone (Progest-E Complex) boosting may be a good starting point.
     
  6. charlie

    charlie The Law & Order Admin

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  7. OP
    tara

    tara Member

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    Re: towards ending migraines - which drugs in meantime?

    I'm putting most of my effort into solving the causes. But in the meantime, I'm also interested in figuring out how to minimise harm from treating migraines - which medicines are likely to do the least long term damage?

    In the past I have tried:
    - Suffering without drugs - I don't have the stamina to withstand this for more than a few hours, let alone 3 days. I have young children to care for so can't generally go out of action for 3 days.
    - Ibuprofen can sometimes interrupt in early stages, or else slightly reduce pain . What are the long term consequences of lots of ibuprofen?
    - Aspirin - not usually as effective at interrupting migraine, and not much noticible effect after migraine under way. Seems relatively benign/helpful for long term health.
    - Paracetamol - I have used this together with ibuprofen to increase effect. But I'm reluctant to continue it, because I gather it's a significant burden on the liver.
    - Metoclopramide + paracetamol against nausea. I've used these to help absorb sumatriptan, especially if I risk not holding it down. But I'm now wary of continuing it - forgotten what I read about it increasing some antimetabolic substance - serotonin? NO?
    - Triptans - the only thing so far that stops the pain effectively. I usu use sumatriptan. Often get migraine returning in a few hours, sometimes before I'm supposed to take more. I have used rizatriptan a few times when I can't keep anything in my stomach, but the rebound migraines come back harder and faster. Generally I have to be able to sleep when I take either of these - can't continue functioning for a few hours. Sometimes one dose is enough, sometimes I take up to 9 doses over 3 days. I haven't found a clear explanation of how they work, but some hints they may increase serotonin, which I guess is bad long term? Anyone know?

    I've tried preventive betablockers - propranolol, nadolol - slowed heartrate, reduced stamina - felt like I'd pass out if my heart rate went up to 135. Not effective against migraine - though that could have been because I had to take them 3xday adnd sometimes missed by a few hours. Tried low dose amityptiline - didn't really feel myself. Not particularly effective.

    Will discuss cyproheptadine with doctor next time. I've read that some people can stop an attack with one or two doses. Don't know how common this is. Some people take it long term preventatively - I'm a bit wary of taking anything continuously - what are the downsides from long-term use? From Haidut's thread about it, I gather it has a bunch of potentially positive long term effects.

    Any more information/recommendations about migraine drugs from Peatish perspective welcome.
    Ta,
    Tara.
     
  8. OP
    tara

    tara Member

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    Thanks for this Aguilaroja,
    Generalisations and directness welcome:):
    I think there is a link to my cycle, though the link is not really regular. Often day 2-4ish and again c. day 10-11. But sometimes not like this. This definitely supports high estrogen hypothesis. Further strong evidence: I got no migraines in the second half of both pregnancies (and then they returned with a vengence after the births).
    A few years ago I briefly tried a lowish dose progestin contraceptive, before I learned that it was different from real progesterone. No other chemical contraceptive. Not effectve prophylaxis, and slightly depressing, so I quit it after about 6 mths.
    I've been trying progest-E since October. Started aiming for c. 3 drops 5/day for a fortnight, and thought I'd reduce or stop it for 2 weeks to maintain cycle. But it didn't stop my cycle, and I didn't want to stop taking it. I've gradually increased my daily dose to c. 80-90mg, though not totally regular in quantity. I generally remember to take it when my head starts to feel slightly 'off'. I usus makes feel better within 15 mins, but I've still been getting teh full on migraines. During migraine I have taken much more, but not measured carefully - I'm guessing I might have taken 200mg over the day, including 100mg over two hours, and woke up more sore. Though I then got away with just one dose of triptan and a long sleep.
    Do you think it would make sense to take more progesterone either regularly or symptomatically? Any risks with this? I feel as though I am becoming dependent on it, without it actually solving the key issue yet.
    Thanks,
    Tara
     
  9. aguilaroja

    aguilaroja Member

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    Some orthomolecular docs for years have used IV magnesium for migraine relief, though the "meta-analysis" data is mixed. Oral magnesium supplementation has also received some positive reports(see below).

    The progesterone in vitamin E oil (Progest-E) when applied to the gums or under the tongue tends to be absorbed quickly. I have known several people who used it to defuse migraines, before starting to use it over the long term to successfully prevent migraines.

    Progest-E used that (rapid) way can be very sedating, so provision to lie down and rest or sleep is still needed. However, that is preferably to lying in pain waiting for a pharmaceutical to work.
    --
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22895810
    Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012 Dec;150(1-3):42-8. doi: 10.1007/s12011-012-9487-5. Epub 2012 Aug 17.
    The effects of magnesium, L-carnitine, and concurrent magnesium-L-carnitine supplementation in migraine prophylaxis.
    Tarighat Esfanjani A1, Mahdavi R, Ebrahimi Mameghani M, Talebi M, Nikniaz Z, Safaiyan A.

    "magnesium supplementation had a significant effect on all migraine indicators"
     
  10. aguilaroja

    aguilaroja Member

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    Excuse me, there were many facets in your story that takes a while to process reading on-screen. The Progest-E maneuvers are a start that sounds promising. With a whopping migraine, getting to defusing it with only one triptan dose is progress. It's a common, and verifying report that migraines recede in later pregnancy–a high natural progesterone state.

    The cold feet, fuzzy thinking, difficulty going briefly without food, tight Achilles are suggestive of low thyroid function.

    My guess is that the tight Achilles means also tight calf muscles. Calf muscle texture that is stiff, crampy, doughy, mucinous, or watery can all be different expressions of compensation for low thyroid function.

    While others on the forum are advocates of huge progesterone doses, I've observed swifter relief in similar situations by adding thyroid support. There are indirect ways of boosting thyroid function, but with substantial impairments, direct supplementation may be a good route.
     
  11. Mittir

    Mittir Member

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    Welcome to the forum

    I read some part of your post. I am curious about your thyroid numbers.
    Reference range of thyroid numbers often are quite high compared to
    what RP recommends.
    I have noticed ( as aguilaroja already mentioned )that large number of females feel a
    lot better after using progesterone. Excess estrogen is the reason hypothyroidism rate
    is 5-10 times higher in female, similar thing happens in migraine.
    I also think you are possibly taking a lot more liquid than your metabolism can
    handle. I am assuming that you possibly have low metabolism.
    Physical activity, surrounding temperature can increase fluid requirement.
    You can measure temperature and pulse 1-2 hours after breakfast to
    get an idea about your metabolism.
    Pectin in OJ is a major gut irritant which can trigger migraine.
    RP thinks raw carrot salad or cooked bamboo shoots are the easiest
    and quickest way to improve hormonal balance and prevent migraine attack.
    You also need to increase your salt intake to balance excess fluid.
    Edit: RP also prevented migraine attack by ingesting milk shake/ ice cream,
    both increases blood sugar and lowers stress hormones.
     
  12. burtlancast

    burtlancast Member

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    By my own experience, my migraines could be triggered by
    - dairy and yoghourts ( especially if taken on empty stomach)
    - some old cheeses that stayed opened in the fridge for 7 days or more ( but not freshly opened ones)
    - hidden MSG ( in some sweets; even a tiny dose does the job; one becomes hypersensible to MSG if he completely avoids it)
    - green lettuce ( triggers migraines with 20 hours delay; due to badly digested fiber ?)
    - niacin when taken after 20.00 or early in the morning will trigger them in the afternoon, especially if taken on an empty stomach
    - wine

    My migraines always start in the morning and begin to recede after 18.00; i feel much better in the evening.

    Maybe you should religiously write down everything you eat and try to identify the culprit afterwards, because sometimes there's a 20 hour delay ; it took me weeks to understand how simple damn lettuce caused me headaches.

    Remedies: nothing really stops migraines; paracetamol,a short nap, onions and carrots can cut the pain sometimes, not always.

    I've read from Charlotte Gerson how she had great success arresting migraines with a coffee enema; makes sense, considering the caffeine, and the effect of coffee substances on the detoxifying enzymes in the liver ( speeds up estrogen detox)
     
  13. OP
    tara

    tara Member

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    Aguilaroja,
    Yes, I have thrown out lots of info - not knowing which are the most relevant bits. Thanks for wading through it.
    I've been supplementing more than 500mg magnesium/day for a couple of months (and had 300-400mg at times in the past) and get some in food.
    From what you say about thyroid, maybe I should prioritise tracking temps and pulse for a while, so I have some hard data, and see if I can find a doctor who is willing to prescribe whole thyroid. As far as I can see, there is no synthetic T3 available for doctors to prescribe here. Yes, I run to cramps in cold feet, too. And had a (not) swallowing issue a while ago that I now think was a hypothyroid symptom.
    Tara
     
  14. OP
    tara

    tara Member

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    Hi Mittir,
    Thanks for your thoughts.
    I'll hunt out my old thyroid numbers. Memory says TSH was definitely above RP's suggested optimal, but within current local clinical norm.
    Haven't found another convenient alternative to oj, but maybe I can figure sth.
    I usually drink 2-3 l/day, sometimes a bit more. I guess I could reduce the fluid ratio by adding more sugar to drinks. Occasionally, I've triggered migraine by under drinking, too. Can usu spend 8-9 hours in bed without getting up to pee, and usu pee >3hr intervals, except during migraine onset. I think I sometimes drink too much, but not always. Maybe I could try limiting to 2 litres for a while, unless really thirsty. I add as much salt as I can and still have things taste good. Sometimes crave it, and haven't figured a convenient portable salty snack yet - all the culturally 'normal ' sources beng full of PUFA and/or gluten and/or cheese.
    I'm eating rinsed grated carrot most days.
    I'd love to drink milkshakes/eat icecream or cheesecake to ward them off :) but in that state I'm sensitive to milk.
    Ta, Tara
     
  15. OP
    tara

    tara Member

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    Thanks for these thoughts.
    Wow, lettuce - well caught :)
    My migraines used to come on in afternoon evening, and be gone in the morning. But now they often come on when sleeping an last 1-3 days, worse again after sleep.

    I've tried food logging in the past, but never managed to identify anything other than milk/cheeese. I'm trying fresh milk and fresh home made cottege cheese, but staying away from aged cheeses and yogurt. Seldom MSG, though glutamic acid in many foods - hard to avaid and get enoug protein. Don't drink wine or beer (though I like the taste). Hunger has always been the most reliable trigger. Maybe i should try more rigorous logging again, with these insights in mind.
    Paracetamol alone doesn't touch it.
    Tara
     
  16. burtlancast

    burtlancast Member

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    If hunger is the most reliable trigger, then it clearly means your glycogen liver stores are low, and your body starts burning fatty acids to compensate for lack of glucose; the breakdown products are what's triggering the migraines.

    And just in case you wouldn't know, MSG hides under more than 40 different names, all of them able to trigger migraines.
     
  17. SQu

    SQu Member

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    Great info here! FWIW my input as fellow sufferer who's been given lots of help by this forum:
    in a nutshell, I think it's the blood sugar and the serotonin.
    The blood sugar is a bigger deal that it seems. Yours is probably broken like mine and fixing takes time and never, ever letting your sugar drop. Recognizing and treating with sugar every tiny hint that it might be, from hunger to tiredness to aching to irritability to spaciness to feeling hyper. Easiest way to do this is to aim to get something into you every hour. Sugar (fruit) and protein. Just a little, but every waking hour. If possible make big friends with milk as it is one of the stars on this approach. (But take care of the "too much liquid" pitfall.) At night, a glass of milk with sugar next to your bed, sip it if and when you wake in the night. And first thing in the morning after taking temp.
    Mine's got a lot better but I have reason to think that a steady supply of T3 is going to be the only thing to really fix it.
    Ice cream: RP says to eat if migraine comes - but if I remember correctly he says a lot, like a quart - more than you think. (thanks HDD!)
    Then the serotonin. Best way I've tackled that is to make my other priority to be a happy digestion, never skip the daily carrot salad or charcoal, get sunlight in the morning, consider BCAAs, definitely lower tryptophan in the diet (milk stars again) take B vits but not too much NA - it seems from other threads it may drop blood sugar a bit (Hope I got that right) and I find too much makes me feel serotoniny.
    I now see that the brain is the canary in the mine when it comes to energy, feels dips first and worst, via amongst other things migraines. I went from at least one 3 day migraine a month and often whole fortnights in a sort of pre- or semi- migraine (dull headache but not yet killing, light sensitive, nauseous, depressed, dull headed) to nothing for the first 4 RP months, then a 2 month setback following a period of (foolish) overwork, with major estrogen and serotonin issues, several migraines and swimming through a' serotonin soup' and then nothing since then (6 more weeks) during which I' ve tackled serotonin signs early and nipped them in the bud.

    Best of luck, it's really worth it!
     
  18. aguilaroja

    aguilaroja Member

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    It's clear as I read more that you've been very studious and resourceful.

    Here's one thing once well known (mid-20th century) but now usually not factored in about good thyroid function. Good thyroid function is necessary to retain minerals (most notably sodium, in the "literature"). Ability to digest and retain minerals is one part of "fluid balance"-more than the cartoon view in the physiology textbooks (see the link to the water article below).

    I think foot and leg cramps in low thyroid states largely reflect this mineral problem. Sometimes supplementing either through baths or by mouth is enough to help things somewhat. Epsom salt foot baths are one option-fairly easy to do if there are a few minutes to sit. Busy parents sometimes have less "luxury" of time. In my own case, severe problems were relieved within hours of switching to a better thyroid preparation.

    I have also known more than a few persons with perceived swallowing difficulty, along with clear signs of low thyroid function. It was (understandably) appraised by health care professionals as not "true" swallowing dysfunction. That is, the muscular control of swallowing was intact. In each case, when other symptoms improved with boosting thyroid function, so did the comfort in swallowing.

    Dr. Peat has pointed out that darkness is a major biological stress, and that stress hormones (adrenalin, cortisol, others) accumulate during darkness. If you find it feasible and palatable, see if gelatin at the evening meal or late in the day helps.

    http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/water.shtml
    "Eating salty food around bedtime usually has a sleep-inducing effect, and it helps to maintain blood volume (which tends to decrease during the night), and to restrain the nocturnal rise of aldosterone, and other indicators of stress or inflammation. Eating gelatin, which lacks tryptophan, will reduce the formation of serotonin, and is likely to limit the formation of aldosterone.
    "Pregnenolone can sometimes very quickly allow swollen tissues to release their water. This function is probably closely related to its antifibromatogenic function, since swelling and leaking set the stage for fibrosis."
     
  19. marikay

    marikay Guest

    Hi Tara. Your migraines sound a lot like the ones I used to get. They went away for the most part, but I still get them occasionally. The one thing I can add to the above is that for me the only thing that triggers them now is alchohol. I don't drink much now that I'm doing the RP thing but with a full-blooded Italian boyfriend, it is almost impossible not to have a little bit of red wine now and then. I also have a long, long tradition of having one rum and Coke on Christmas Eve. Sometimes I convince myself that by drinking on a full stomach I can avoid the migraine. But I know from experience that by drinking the alchohol (even a little bit) I am flirting with disaster. I don't think you mention whether or not you drink alchohol, but when I do, I make sure I get salt beforehand and afterward, I take an aspirin beforehand and afterward, and I eat or drink something sweet beforehand and afterward. This seems to cut off the migraine before it gets a chance to really get going. Cheers, Marikay....
     
  20. HDD

    HDD Member

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    Hi Tara,

    Came across this about migraines while reading.


    "The polyunsaturated oils interact closely with serotonin and tryptophan, and the short and medium chain saturated fatty acids have antihistamine and antiserotonin actions. Serotonin liberates free fatty acids from the tissues, especially the polyunsaturated fats, and these in turn liberate serotonin from cells such as the platelets, and liberate tryptophan from serum albumin, increasing its uptake and the formation of serotonin in the brain. Saturated fats don't liberate serotonin, and some of them, such as capric acid found in coconut oil, relax blood vessels, while linoleic acid constricts blood vessels and promotes hypertension. Stress, exercise, and darkness, increase the release of free fatty acids, and so promote the liberation of tryptophan and formation of serotonin. Increased serum linoleic acid is specifically associated with serotonin-dependent disorders such as migraine.

    Coconut oil, because of its saturated fatty acids of varied chain length, and its low linoleic acid content, should be considered as part of a protective diet."
    (bold and italic mine)

    Res Clin Stud Headache 1978;6:110-6. Role of individual free fatty acids in migraine. Anthony M “Total plasma free fatty acids, platelet serotonin content and plasma stearic, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were estimated in 10 migraine patients before, during and after a migraine attack. Total and individual plasma free fatty acid levels rose and platelet serotonin content fell in most patients. The highest rise was observed in linoleic acid, which is known to be a potent liberator of platelet serotonin in vitro and is the only precursor of all prostaglandins in the body. It is suggested that the rise in plasma levels of linoleic acid in migraine could be responsible for the platelet serotonin release observed during the attack.”

    Clin Exp Neurol 1978;15:190-6. Individual free fatty acids and migraine. Anthony M Total plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), platelet serotonin content and plasma stearic, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were estimated in 10 migrainous patients before, during and after a migraine attack. Total and individual plasma FFA levels rose and platelet serotonin fell in most patients. Comparison of the pre-headache and headache mean values showed that of the FFAs linoleic acid rises most during headache. 10 non-migrainous controls had platelet serotonin content estimated before and after the ingestion of 20g linoleic acid. All showed a significant fall in platelet serotonin in the post-ingestion period. It is shown that linoleic acid releases platelet serotonin in vitro, and this study suggests that it has the same action in vivo. Further, it is the precursor of all prostaglandins in the body and its marked elevation during migraine may serve as a source of increased prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) synthesis. It is suggested that linoleic acid plays an important role in the biochemical process of the migraine attack, acting both as a serotonin releasing factor and a source of PGF1, the vasodilating action of which can aggravate the clinical symptoms of migraine.


    http://raypeat.com/articles/aging/trypt ... ging.shtml
     
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