Taurine Dramatically Improves Protein Utilization From Food

haidut

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The study was on babies, which I think makes it even more relevant given that babies cannot handle protein very well similarly to sick/aging people. Babies that were breast-fed ingested about 1g/kg protein daily had normal protein utilization. This could be due both to either the fact that they were breast fed or the fact that protein intake was not that high. The babies that were formula-fed ingested about 4g/kg daily, had high BUN / creatinine, and high levels of amino acids in the blood, which suggests poor protein utilization. Supplemental taurine to the formula reversed all negative blood parameters to the levels seen in the blood of the breast-fed infants. While the study does not mention it, the fact that BUN / creatinine, and blood amino acids were lowered by taurine suggests that waste byproducts like ammonia were also probably lower. This makes taurine a good amino acid to supplement for people with impaired digestion. As such, it is a great addition to the modified MAP formula I posted recently or to foods providing more than 2g/kg protein per day.
The taurine supplementation for infants was at 10mg taurine for every 100 calories. This means 200mg - 300mg taurine for most adults, which should be achievable with diet. I don't know if ingesting more taurine will improve protein utilization even more. This study also suggests that protein utilization efficiency for the different types of protein can be judged from their taurine contents.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9001648

"...The energy and protein intakes were also similar in the two formula groups at 2 and 12 weeks, protein intake at 2 weeks being 3.38g/kg/day and 3.26g/kg/day in the taurine non-supplemented and the taurine-supplemented groups, respectively, and 2.94g/kg/day and 2.88g/kg/day at 12 weeks."

"...Only the formula intakes were measured in the present study, but on the basis of previous studies regarding intake volumes of breast-fed healthy term infants of 2 and 12 weeks of age (1 1, 12), it can be estimated that the breast-fed infants had a protein intake of about 2g/kg/day at 2 weeks and about 1.1 g/kg/day at 12 weeks. Thus, the formula-fed infants had a protein intake twice that of the breast-fed infants. This protein intake is in excess of the requirements for the age (13) and should thus produce significantly elevated blood urea nitrogen and plasma and urine amino acid concentrations if not fully utilized."

"...At the twelfth week, BUN was significantly higher in the infants fed the taurine non-supplemented formula than in the two other feeding groups (Table 3). During the twelfth week the total amino acid concentrations of the infants fed the taurine supplemented formula were significantly lower than during the second week, whereas there was no change with age in the other two feeding groups (Table 3). Total amino acid and total essential amino acid concentrations were significantly higher in the taurine non-supplemented group of infants than in the other two groups (Table 3). The concentrations of threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and lysine were significantly higher in the taurine non-supplemented group."

"...Thus, a possible explanation for the hyperaminoacidemia and elevated urea concentrations in the taurine non-supplemented infants with excessive protein intake could be a depression of protein synthesis and growth rate when compared to the infants fed breast milk or taurine-supplemented formula."

"...In the infants fed the taurine non-supplemented formula, total amino acid concentration and most essential amino acids in both plasma and urine were significantly elevated at 12 weeks of age when compared to those found in the breast-fed infants, as would be expected. The blood urea nitrogen level was also significantly elevated at 12 weeks in the infants fed the taurine non-supplemented formula. However, in the taurine-supplemented group of infants both BUN and plasma and urine amino acid concentrations were much lower than in the non-supplemented group and not different from those of the breast-fed infants at 12 weeks of age. Thus, for some reason, taurine supplementation lowered and "normalized" the plasma and urine amino acid concentrations as well as the BUN levels, in spite of the high protein intake.
 

Parsifal

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haidut said:
This is an interesting study, thank you again haidut!

This leads me to a question that might be unrelated: Is there an issue to raise BUN too much, will it damage the kidneys? IIRC Peat says that high urea is good especially for old people?
Also I've read that too much protein increases mTOR which is not good. Would taurine lower the mTOR as well because proteins are utilized more?

Also that would mean that people eating taurine should eat more proteins?

:hattip
 
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haidut

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Parsifal said:
post 107150
haidut said:
This is an interesting study, thank you again haidut!

This leads me to a question that might be unrelated: Is there an issue to raise BUN too much, will it damage the kidneys? IIRC Peat says that high urea is good especially for old people?
Also I've read that too much protein increases mTOR which is not good. Would taurine lower the mTOR as well because proteins are utilized more?

Also that would mean that people eating taurine should eat more proteins?

:hattip

I don't think it means people taking taurine should eat more protein. Where did you see that implied in the study? I think the study simply shows that eating high protein diet leads to protein waste since most people cannot really utilize more than 1g/kg daily without adding some sort of anabolic steroid. Taurine increases that utilization somehow, so you produce less waste even on high protein diet.
I don't know whether high protein diet would be bad, or whether taurine would lower mTOR.
 
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charlie

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haidut, thank you for this! :hattip
 

TheHound

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so I'd imagine taurine would be quite an effective addition to a post workout meal?
 

haidut

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TheHound said:
post 107771 so I'd imagine taurine would be quite an effective addition to a post workout meal?

Oh yeah, especially considering its effects on inhibiting PUFA metabolism, increasing glycogen storage, and lowering FFA.
 
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haidut

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Agent207 said:
post 107792 Wouldn't be better on pre-workout meal?

It can also help in a pre-workout meal since it has been shown to reduce lactate buildup. But not sure that makes it strictly better to take before exercise.
 
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heartnhands

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The study was on babies, which I think makes it even more relevant given that babies cannot handle protein very well similarly to sick/aging people. Babies that were breast-fed ingested about 1g/kg protein daily had normal protein utilization. This could be due both to either the fact that they were breast fed or the fact that protein intake was not that high. The babies that were formula-fed ingested about 4g/kg daily, had high BUN / creatinine, and high levels of amino acids in the blood, which suggests poor protein utilization. Supplemental taurine to the formula reversed all negative blood parameters to the levels seen in the blood of the breast-fed infants. While the study does not mention it, the fact that BUN / creatinine, and blood amino acids were lowered by taurine suggests that waste byproducts like ammonia were also probably lower. This makes taurine a good amino acid to supplement for people with impaired digestion. As such, it is a great addition to the modified MAP formula I posted recently or to foods providing more than 2g/kg protein per day.
The taurine supplementation for infants was at 10mg taurine for every 100 calories. This means 200mg - 300mg taurine for most adults, which should be achievable with diet. I don't know if ingesting more taurine will improve protein utilization even more. This study also suggests that protein utilization efficiency for the different types of protein can be judged from their taurine contents.

Taurine supplementation prevents hyperaminoacidemia in growing term infants fed high-protein cow's milk formula. - PubMed - NCBI

"...The energy and protein intakes were also similar in the two formula groups at 2 and 12 weeks, protein intake at 2 weeks being 3.38g/kg/day and 3.26g/kg/day in the taurine non-supplemented and the taurine-supplemented groups, respectively, and 2.94g/kg/day and 2.88g/kg/day at 12 weeks."

"...Only the formula intakes were measured in the present study, but on the basis of previous studies regarding intake volumes of breast-fed healthy term infants of 2 and 12 weeks of age (1 1, 12), it can be estimated that the breast-fed infants had a protein intake of about 2g/kg/day at 2 weeks and about 1.1 g/kg/day at 12 weeks. Thus, the formula-fed infants had a protein intake twice that of the breast-fed infants. This protein intake is in excess of the requirements for the age (13) and should thus produce significantly elevated blood urea nitrogen and plasma and urine amino acid concentrations if not fully utilized."

"...At the twelfth week, BUN was significantly higher in the infants fed the taurine non-supplemented formula than in the two other feeding groups (Table 3). During the twelfth week the total amino acid concentrations of the infants fed the taurine supplemented formula were significantly lower than during the second week, whereas there was no change with age in the other two feeding groups (Table 3). Total amino acid and total essential amino acid concentrations were significantly higher in the taurine non-supplemented group of infants than in the other two groups (Table 3). The concentrations of threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and lysine were significantly higher in the taurine non-supplemented group."

"...Thus, a possible explanation for the hyperaminoacidemia and elevated urea concentrations in the taurine non-supplemented infants with excessive protein intake could be a depression of protein synthesis and growth rate when compared to the infants fed breast milk or taurine-supplemented formula."

"...In the infants fed the taurine non-supplemented formula, total amino acid concentration and most essential amino acids in both plasma and urine were significantly elevated at 12 weeks of age when compared to those found in the breast-fed infants, as would be expected. The blood urea nitrogen level was also significantly elevated at 12 weeks in the infants fed the taurine non-supplemented formula. However, in the taurine-supplemented group of infants both BUN and plasma and urine amino acid concentrations were much lower than in the non-supplemented group and not different from those of the breast-fed infants at 12 weeks of age. Thus, for some reason, taurine supplementation lowered and "normalized" the plasma and urine amino acid concentrations as well as the BUN levels, in spite of the high protein intake.
 
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haidut

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Being that Taurine eliminates excess amonia and assists in absorption of mag and other fat soluble essentials, for the sake of limiting the number of suppliments, might MB replace taurine?

Why would MB replace taurine?
 

heartnhands

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I WAS ASKING YOU because if it eliminates excesses that cause congestion perhaps it energy can ease the fat solubles. I'M not a biochemist but the areas being treated by other suppliments seem to be easily replaced by MB so I was wondering if I could lighten my load. IS it possible?
Why would MB replace taurine?[/QUO
 

jyb

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Oh yeah, especially considering its effects on inhibiting PUFA metabolism, increasing glycogen storage, and lowering FFA.

Do you know why taurine would improve protein utilization? That and drop in FFA could be merely due to insulin stimulation and so not specific to taurine, so is it more than this?
 

Agent207

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I WAS ASKING YOU because if it eliminates excesses that cause congestion perhaps it energy can ease the fat solubles. I'M not a biochemist but the areas being treated by other suppliments seem to be easily replaced by MB so I was wondering if I could lighten my load. IS it possible?

I see no sense at all at your question neither your reasoning.

Great find by the way!!
 

haidut

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Thanks for the feedback sorry for any confusion.

I can't answer your question since I don't understand what you are asking for. Methylene blue and taurine act in very different ways, so I don't think they can substitute for one another. As you can see, this thread is about taurine improving protein utilization and as far as I know methylene blue has not been shown to do the same in any study. If I had to choose, I would probably take MB over taurine but each one of them has effects that the other one doesn't, so they are really complementary.
 

haidut

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Do you know why taurine would improve protein utilization? That and drop in FFA could be merely due to insulin stimulation and so not specific to taurine, so is it more than this?

I think the increase of protein utilization is due to taurine's effects on liver health. Glycine has been shown to have similar effects on protein utilization and it also affects liver health beneficially. Protein utilization depends almost entirely on liver's ability to process protein and keep ammonia under control. Insulin plays a role as well but liver health is paramount. Caffeine, which is also very beneficial for liver, has been shown to improve anabolic response to protein and prevent muscle catabolism during exercise, and as far as I know it has no effect on insulin.
 

paymanz

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taurine improves insulin sensitivity and also stimulate connective tissue synthesis.
 

Elephanto

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The study was on babies, which I think makes it even more relevant given that babies cannot handle protein very well similarly to sick/aging people. Babies that were breast-fed ingested about 1g/kg protein daily had normal protein utilization. This could be due both to either the fact that they were breast fed or the fact that protein intake was not that high. The babies that were formula-fed ingested about 4g/kg daily, had high BUN / creatinine, and high levels of amino acids in the blood, which suggests poor protein utilization. Supplemental taurine to the formula reversed all negative blood parameters to the levels seen in the blood of the breast-fed infants. While the study does not mention it, the fact that BUN / creatinine, and blood amino acids were lowered by taurine suggests that waste byproducts like ammonia were also probably lower. This makes taurine a good amino acid to supplement for people with impaired digestion. As such, it is a great addition to the modified MAP formula I posted recently or to foods providing more than 2g/kg protein per day.
The taurine supplementation for infants was at 10mg taurine for every 100 calories. This means 200mg - 300mg taurine for most adults, which should be achievable with diet. I don't know if ingesting more taurine will improve protein utilization even more. This study also suggests that protein utilization efficiency for the different types of protein can be judged from their taurine contents.

Do you know if taurine inhibits methionine absorption at this kind of dose or you need to go higher ?
 

haidut

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Do you know if taurine inhibits methionine absorption at this kind of dose or you need to go higher ?

Don't know that taurine does that but glycine most certainly inhibits methionine absorption and can even deplete methionine stores. Niacinamide also depletes methionine stores. BCAA inhibit methionine absorption.
 

Elephanto

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Don't know that taurine does that but glycine most certainly inhibits methionine absorption and can even deplete methionine stores. Niacinamide also depletes methionine stores. BCAA inhibit methionine absorption.

at a dose of 3g it does :
Taurine Blocks Methionine Absorption
It's also known to lower homocysteine in various studies so that would make sense since it restricts its precursor.

I'm just kind of worried about lower dose such as your study, if it does increase protein assimilation then it would probably increase each amino acids contained, unless it also blocks methionine absorption at low dose?
 
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