Similar Patterns Of Pulmonary Disease Between HAPE And COVID-19

md_a

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Aug 31, 2015
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WhatsApp Image 2020-03-30 at 11.30.29.jpeg Both COVID-19 and HAPE (high altitude pulmonary edema) exhibit a decreased ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen with concomitant hypoxia and tachypnea. There also appears to be a tendency for low carbon dioxide levels in both as well. Radiologic findings of ground glass opacities are present in up to 86% of patients with COVID-19 in addition to patchy infiltrates. Patients with HAPE also exhibit patchy infiltrates throughout the pulmonary fields, often in an asymmetric pattern and CT findings reveal increased lung markings and ground glass-like changes as well. Widespread ground-glass opacities are most commonly a manifestation of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Similarly, elevated fibrinogen levels in both conditions are likely an epiphenomenon of edema formation rather than coagulation activation. Autopsy results of a COVID-19 fatality revealed bilateral diffuse alveolar damage associated with pulmonary edema, pro-inflammatory concentrates, and indications of early-phase acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). HAPE itself is initially caused by an increase in pulmonary capillary pressure and induces altered alveolar-capillary permeability via high pulmonary artery hydrostatic pressures that lead to a protein-rich and mildly hemorrhagic edema. It appears that COVID-19 and HAPE both discretely converge on ARDS. In light of this, a countermeasure that has been shown to be effective in the analogous condition of HAPE is Acetazolamide. Acetazolamide has a myriad of effects on different organ systems, potently reduces hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, improves minute ventilation and expired vital capacity. Other therapeutics to consider that are also directed towards decreased pulmonary pressure include Nifedipine and Phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

https://www.researchgate.net/public...ine_Phoshpdiesterase_Inhibitors_Acetazolamide


“Kidney disease, diabetes, pregnancy toxemia and retinal degeneration are probably the best known problems involving vascular leakage, but increasingly, cancer and heart disease are being recognized as consequences of prolonged permeability defects. Congestive heart failure and pulmonary hypertension commonly cause leakage of fluid into the lungs, and shock of any sort causes the lung to get "wet," a waterlogged condition called "shock lung." Simply hyperventilating for a couple of minutes will increase leakage from the blood into the lungs; hyperventilation decreases carbon dioxide, and increases serotonin and histamine. Hyperoxia itself contributes to lung injury, and exacerbates emphysema, though it is common to see patients breathing a high concentration of oxygen. Emphysema (which can be caused by hypothyroidism or hyper-estrogenism, and often can be cured by thyroid or progesterone) and many other respiratory problems are associated with capillary leakage. Cells of the lung and intestine are able to synthesize their own fibrin, apparently because of their special problems in preventing leakage. Prolonged systemic inflammation can lead to lung fibrosis, and fibrosis increases the likelihood of lung cancer.


The inflammatory state that causes exaggerated cellular permeability is very closely related to "hyperventilation," the loss of too much carbon dioxide. The release of serotonin during hyperventilation isn't the only cause of vascular leakage; the carbon dioxide itself is an essential factor in regulating the state of cellular electrons and in maintaining cellular integrity. Hyperventilation, like the shift from oxidative to glycolytic energy production that typifies estrogenized or stressed cells or cancer, raises intracellular pH. In the case of mast cells, increasing alkalinity causes them to release histamine (Alfonso, et al., 2005), but similar "alkaline-induced exocytosis" seems to occur in all stressed tissues.


The blood platelets that become incontinent and leak serotonin in the absence of carbon dioxide are undergoing the same structural stresses experience by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, mast cells and all other cells when carbon dioxide is depleted. Although it has been about 70 years since Yandell Henderson made it clear that supplemental oxygen should be combined with carbon dioxide, mechanical ventilation in hospitals is still causing lung injury resulting from hyperventilation, i.e., the absence of carbon dioxide. A similar misunderstanding of biology was involved in the use of dialysis to treat kidney disease. Until recently, commercial dialysis fluids contained acetate and/or racemic lactate instead of bicarbonate, because of the difficulty of preparing bicarbonate solutions, and the result was that very prolonged dialysis would damage the brain and other organs. (Veech and Gitomer, 1988, Veech and Fowler, 1987.) Dialysis has been seen to increase lung permeability Bell, et al., 1988).


Amyloidosis produced by chronic dialysis affects all organs, but its effects are best known in the brain, heart, kidneys, and lungs. Serum amyloid-A is one of the acute phase proteins, like C-reactive protein (CRP), that are produced by inflammation. Estrogen, radiation and other stresses increase those pro-inflammatory acute phase proteins, and decrease protective albumin, which is called a "negative acute phase protein," since it decreases when the other acute phase proteins increase. The liver is the major source of the acute phase proteins, and it is constantly burdened by toxins absorbed from the bowel; disinfection of the bowel is known to accelerate recovery from stress.


Seen from the perspective of the stress-leakage syndrome, any serious injury or sickness damages all organs. The exhaled breath is being used to diagnose inflammatory lung disease, since so many of the mediators of inflammation are volatile, but systemic diseases such as cancer and arthritis, and relatively minor stress can be detected by changes in the chemicals found in the breath. Polyunsaturated fats and their breakdown products--aldehydes, prostaglandins, isoprostanes, hydrocarbons, and free radicals--and carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide are increased in the breath by most stresses. Both proline and glycine (which are major amino acids in gelatin) are very protective for the liver, increasing albumin, and stopping oxidative damage.


Saturated fats are protective against free radical damage and can reverse liver fibrosis. Thyroid hormone protects against excess estrogen, and can prevent or reverse fibrosis of the heart. Antiestrogens are widely effective against vascular leakage. Thyroid, progesterone, and testosterone are among the most effective natural antiestrogens, and they are curative in many conditions that involve vascular leakage. Progesterone and pregnenolone have been called the antifibromatic steroids, and it has been used to treat many inflammatory and fibrotic diseases, including cancer.


The antiserotonin drugs are being increasingly used to treat fibrotic diseases, and other problems related to vascular leakage.


Antiinflammatory and anticoagulant things, especially aspirin and vitamin E, protect against the accelerated turnover of fibrinogen/fibrin caused by estrogen and the various inflammatory states.”

Leakiness, aging, and cancer


“Mountain sickness” is a potentially deadly condition that develops in some people when they ascend too rapidly to a high altitude. Edema of the lungs and brain can develop rapidly, leading to convulsions and death. The standard drug for preventing it is acetazolamide, which inhibits carbonic anhydrase and causes carbon dioxide to be retained, creating a slight tendency toward acidosis. This treatment probably mimics the retention of carbon dioxide that occurs naturally in altitude adapted people. The reasons for mountain sickness, and the reasons for the low incidence of heart disease, cancer, cataracts, etc., at high altitude, offer clues to the prevention of death and deterioration from many other causes.”

Altitude and Mortality

“Increasing carbon dioxide lowers the intracellular pH, as well as inhibiting lactic acid formation, and restoring the oxidation of glucose increases CO2. Inhibiting carbonic anhydrase, to allow more CO2 to stay in the cell, contributes to intracellular acidification, and by systemically increasing carbon dioxide this inhibition has a broad range of protective anti-excitatory effects. The drug industry is now looking for chemicals that will specifically inhibit the carbonic anhydrase enzymes that are active in tumors. Existing carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, will inhibit those enzymes, without harming other tissues. Aspirin has some effect as an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase (Bayram, et al., 2008). Since histamine, serotonin (Vullo, et al., 2007), and estrogen (Barnett, et al., 2008; Garg, 1975) are carbonic anhydrase activators, their antagonists would help to acidify the hypoxic cells. Testosterone (Suzuki, et al., 1996) and progesterone are estrogen antagonists that inhibit carbonic anhydrase.” Ray Peat
 

Regina

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View attachment 17213 Both COVID-19 and HAPE (high altitude pulmonary edema) exhibit a decreased ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen with concomitant hypoxia and tachypnea. There also appears to be a tendency for low carbon dioxide levels in both as well. Radiologic findings of ground glass opacities are present in up to 86% of patients with COVID-19 in addition to patchy infiltrates. Patients with HAPE also exhibit patchy infiltrates throughout the pulmonary fields, often in an asymmetric pattern and CT findings reveal increased lung markings and ground glass-like changes as well. Widespread ground-glass opacities are most commonly a manifestation of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Similarly, elevated fibrinogen levels in both conditions are likely an epiphenomenon of edema formation rather than coagulation activation. Autopsy results of a COVID-19 fatality revealed bilateral diffuse alveolar damage associated with pulmonary edema, pro-inflammatory concentrates, and indications of early-phase acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). HAPE itself is initially caused by an increase in pulmonary capillary pressure and induces altered alveolar-capillary permeability via high pulmonary artery hydrostatic pressures that lead to a protein-rich and mildly hemorrhagic edema. It appears that COVID-19 and HAPE both discretely converge on ARDS. In light of this, a countermeasure that has been shown to be effective in the analogous condition of HAPE is Acetazolamide. Acetazolamide has a myriad of effects on different organ systems, potently reduces hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, improves minute ventilation and expired vital capacity. Other therapeutics to consider that are also directed towards decreased pulmonary pressure include Nifedipine and Phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

https://www.researchgate.net/public...ine_Phoshpdiesterase_Inhibitors_Acetazolamide


“Kidney disease, diabetes, pregnancy toxemia and retinal degeneration are probably the best known problems involving vascular leakage, but increasingly, cancer and heart disease are being recognized as consequences of prolonged permeability defects. Congestive heart failure and pulmonary hypertension commonly cause leakage of fluid into the lungs, and shock of any sort causes the lung to get "wet," a waterlogged condition called "shock lung." Simply hyperventilating for a couple of minutes will increase leakage from the blood into the lungs; hyperventilation decreases carbon dioxide, and increases serotonin and histamine. Hyperoxia itself contributes to lung injury, and exacerbates emphysema, though it is common to see patients breathing a high concentration of oxygen. Emphysema (which can be caused by hypothyroidism or hyper-estrogenism, and often can be cured by thyroid or progesterone) and many other respiratory problems are associated with capillary leakage. Cells of the lung and intestine are able to synthesize their own fibrin, apparently because of their special problems in preventing leakage. Prolonged systemic inflammation can lead to lung fibrosis, and fibrosis increases the likelihood of lung cancer.


The inflammatory state that causes exaggerated cellular permeability is very closely related to "hyperventilation," the loss of too much carbon dioxide. The release of serotonin during hyperventilation isn't the only cause of vascular leakage; the carbon dioxide itself is an essential factor in regulating the state of cellular electrons and in maintaining cellular integrity. Hyperventilation, like the shift from oxidative to glycolytic energy production that typifies estrogenized or stressed cells or cancer, raises intracellular pH. In the case of mast cells, increasing alkalinity causes them to release histamine (Alfonso, et al., 2005), but similar "alkaline-induced exocytosis" seems to occur in all stressed tissues.


The blood platelets that become incontinent and leak serotonin in the absence of carbon dioxide are undergoing the same structural stresses experience by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, mast cells and all other cells when carbon dioxide is depleted. Although it has been about 70 years since Yandell Henderson made it clear that supplemental oxygen should be combined with carbon dioxide, mechanical ventilation in hospitals is still causing lung injury resulting from hyperventilation, i.e., the absence of carbon dioxide. A similar misunderstanding of biology was involved in the use of dialysis to treat kidney disease. Until recently, commercial dialysis fluids contained acetate and/or racemic lactate instead of bicarbonate, because of the difficulty of preparing bicarbonate solutions, and the result was that very prolonged dialysis would damage the brain and other organs. (Veech and Gitomer, 1988, Veech and Fowler, 1987.) Dialysis has been seen to increase lung permeability Bell, et al., 1988).


Amyloidosis produced by chronic dialysis affects all organs, but its effects are best known in the brain, heart, kidneys, and lungs. Serum amyloid-A is one of the acute phase proteins, like C-reactive protein (CRP), that are produced by inflammation. Estrogen, radiation and other stresses increase those pro-inflammatory acute phase proteins, and decrease protective albumin, which is called a "negative acute phase protein," since it decreases when the other acute phase proteins increase. The liver is the major source of the acute phase proteins, and it is constantly burdened by toxins absorbed from the bowel; disinfection of the bowel is known to accelerate recovery from stress.


Seen from the perspective of the stress-leakage syndrome, any serious injury or sickness damages all organs. The exhaled breath is being used to diagnose inflammatory lung disease, since so many of the mediators of inflammation are volatile, but systemic diseases such as cancer and arthritis, and relatively minor stress can be detected by changes in the chemicals found in the breath. Polyunsaturated fats and their breakdown products--aldehydes, prostaglandins, isoprostanes, hydrocarbons, and free radicals--and carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide are increased in the breath by most stresses. Both proline and glycine (which are major amino acids in gelatin) are very protective for the liver, increasing albumin, and stopping oxidative damage.


Saturated fats are protective against free radical damage and can reverse liver fibrosis. Thyroid hormone protects against excess estrogen, and can prevent or reverse fibrosis of the heart. Antiestrogens are widely effective against vascular leakage. Thyroid, progesterone, and testosterone are among the most effective natural antiestrogens, and they are curative in many conditions that involve vascular leakage. Progesterone and pregnenolone have been called the antifibromatic steroids, and it has been used to treat many inflammatory and fibrotic diseases, including cancer.


The antiserotonin drugs are being increasingly used to treat fibrotic diseases, and other problems related to vascular leakage.


Antiinflammatory and anticoagulant things, especially aspirin and vitamin E, protect against the accelerated turnover of fibrinogen/fibrin caused by estrogen and the various inflammatory states.”

Leakiness, aging, and cancer


“Mountain sickness” is a potentially deadly condition that develops in some people when they ascend too rapidly to a high altitude. Edema of the lungs and brain can develop rapidly, leading to convulsions and death. The standard drug for preventing it is acetazolamide, which inhibits carbonic anhydrase and causes carbon dioxide to be retained, creating a slight tendency toward acidosis. This treatment probably mimics the retention of carbon dioxide that occurs naturally in altitude adapted people. The reasons for mountain sickness, and the reasons for the low incidence of heart disease, cancer, cataracts, etc., at high altitude, offer clues to the prevention of death and deterioration from many other causes.”

Altitude and Mortality

“Increasing carbon dioxide lowers the intracellular pH, as well as inhibiting lactic acid formation, and restoring the oxidation of glucose increases CO2. Inhibiting carbonic anhydrase, to allow more CO2 to stay in the cell, contributes to intracellular acidification, and by systemically increasing carbon dioxide this inhibition has a broad range of protective anti-excitatory effects. The drug industry is now looking for chemicals that will specifically inhibit the carbonic anhydrase enzymes that are active in tumors. Existing carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, will inhibit those enzymes, without harming other tissues. Aspirin has some effect as an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase (Bayram, et al., 2008). Since histamine, serotonin (Vullo, et al., 2007), and estrogen (Barnett, et al., 2008; Garg, 1975) are carbonic anhydrase activators, their antagonists would help to acidify the hypoxic cells. Testosterone (Suzuki, et al., 1996) and progesterone are estrogen antagonists that inhibit carbonic anhydrase.” Ray Peat
Your posts are astonishing. Thank you so much.
 

LeeLemonoil

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Joined
Sep 24, 2016
Messages
2,344
Which properties and actions of Acetazolmide are likely involved that attenuate describes desease-effects?
Can they be replicated with additional substances. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition is also achieved by Thiamine but is that the core mechanism?

@haidut
 

md_a

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Thread starter
Joined
Aug 31, 2015
Messages
250
The mechanism of action of angiotensin II is dependent on direct activation of vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase I.

Our previous studies have shown that angiotensin II increases carbonic anhydrase activity both in vitro and in vivo. In this study we investigated in vitro the effect of angiotensin II on carbonic anhydrase I and II from erythrocytes and on arteriolar vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase I. We also studied in vitro and in vivo the effect of angiotensin II receptor blockers (irbesartan and candesartan) on purified carbonic anhydrase I and II, on vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase I and on arterial blood pressure in humans and in animals. In vitro results showed that angiotensin II is a direct and stronger activator of carbonic anhydrase I than II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers reduced mainly carbonic anhydrase I activity and completely antagonized the activating effect of angiotensin II both on purified and on vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase I. Our in vivo experiments showed that irbesartan and candesartan are powerful inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase I both in erythrocytes (in humans) and in vascular smooth muscles (in animals). In humans, irbesartan and candesartan progressively reduce arterial blood pressure in hypertensive subjects, in parallel with progressive reduction of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I activity. We believe that angiotensin II could have a dual mechanism of action: (1) angiotensin interacting with its receptor to form a stimulus-receptor complex; (2) the same stimulus directly acts on the carbonic anhydrase I isozyme (which might be coupled with angiotensin II receptors), ensuring an adequate pH for stimulus-receptor coupling for signal transmission into the cell and hence vasoconstriction.

The mechanism of action of angiotensin II is dependent on direct activation of vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase I. - PubMed - NCBI


ACE2 metabolizes Ang I and Ang II into Ang-(1-9) and Ang-(1-7) respectively with higher preference for Angiotensin II degradation.


“The local concentration of carbon dioxide in specific tissues and organs can be adjusted by nervous and hormonal activation or inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase enzymes, that accelerate the conversion of CO2 to carbonic acid, H2CO3. The activity of carbonic anhydrase can determine the density and strength of the skeleton, the excitability of nerves, the accumulation of water, and can regulate the structure and function of the tissues and organs.

Ordinarily, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate are thought of only in relation to the regulation of pH, and only in a very general way. Because of the importance of keeping the pH of the blood within a narrow range, carbon dioxide is commonly thought of as a toxin, because an excess can cause unconsciousness and acidosis. But increasing carbon dioxide doesn't necessarily cause acidosis, and acidosis caused by carbon dioxide isn't as harmful as lactic acidosis.”

Protective CO2 and aging
 
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