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Saturated Fat Is More Metabolically Harmful For The Human Liver Than Unsaturated Fat Or Simple Sugar

Discussion in 'Articles & Scientific Studies' started by Mito, May 30, 2018.

  1. Mito

    Mito Member

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    Saturated Fat Is More Metabolically Harmful for the Human Liver Than Unsaturated Fat or Simple Sugars

    OBJECTIVE
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (i.e., increased intrahepatic triglyceride [IHTG] content), predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are the main pathways contributing to IHTG. We hypothesized that dietary macronutrient composition influences the pathways, mediators, and magnitude of weight gain-induced changes in IHTG.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
    We overfed 38 overweight subjects (age 48 6 2, BMI 31 6 1 kg/m2, liver fat 4.7 6 0.9%) 1,000 extra kcal/day of saturated (SAT) or unsaturated (UNSAT) fat or simple sugars (CARB) for 3 weeks. We measured IHTG (1H-MRS), pathways contributing to IHTG (lipolysis ([2H5]glycerol) and DNL (2H2O) basally and during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia,insulin resistance,endotoxemia,plasmaceramides,andadipose tissue gene expression at 0 and 3 weeks.

    RESULTS
    Overfeeding SAT increased IHTG more (+55%) than UNSAT (+15%, P < 0.05). CARB increased IHTG (+33%) by stimulating DNL (+98%). SAT significantly increased while UNSAT decreased lipolysis. SAT induced insulin resistance and endotoxemia and significantly increased multiple plasma ceramides. The diets had distinct effects on adipose tissue gene expression.

    CONCLUSIONS
    Macronutrient composition of excess energy influences pathways of IHTG: CARB increases DNL, while SAT increases and UNSAT decreases lipolysis. SAT induced greatest increase in IHTG, insulin resistance, and harmful ceramides. Decreased intakes of SAT could be beneficial in reducing IHTG and the associated risk of diabetes.
     
  2. SOMO

    SOMO Member

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    Some issues I see right off the bat:

    1. Overfeeding means that the subjects were still eating OTHER food (likely PUFA crap or twinkies/doritos what have you).

    The study doesn't indicate that they were eating strictly coconut oil lol.
    Obviously to be overfed you first have to be fed (and then consume an excess in comparison to what you're burning through exercise.)

    2. If you're overweight it means you already have a deranged metabolism and inflammation. This study was done on overweight people, not healthy lean people and so the results are definitely interesting, but could work differently in others.

    3. Triglycerides change week to week. Many people with chronic conditions go to a doctor more than once a month (some once a week) and see blood results like this change rise and fall frequently.


    Still, this study is interesting because it's good to have a counterbalance to all the pro-SFA we hear.
     
  3. benaoao

    benaoao Member

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    mostly an absence of protein as described here by Masterjohn

    https://chrismasterjohnphd.com/2010/11/23/sweet-truth-about-liver-and-egg-yolks/

    butter is a wonderful food to eat for a fatty liver in the absence of proteins. It doesn't mean butter is wrong, it means the low protein is the issue.

    Also yeah, overweight subjects... not really relating to them. Low fat for all anyway. The longer the carbon chain, the higher the fat intake, the slower the metabolism - I don't really see the point, unless if old.
     
  4. fradon

    fradon Member

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    low protein diets means low methionine. low methionine can result in fatty liver disease. increase protein can help cure fatty liver.
     
  5. Alexander

    Alexander Member

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    all i know is that i SHOULD have Eat Saturated fat WAY BEFORE 25 years old...

    Godamn This save my life. If i known earlier...

    Saturated fat Is a god send. Whole eggs, Whole milk 3.25, Beef. Eat a Ton.
     
  6. benaoao

    benaoao Member

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    Whole eggs and a ton of grain fed beef is a significant amount of arachidonic acid which is probably the worst fat you’ll find in a modern diet

    Although beef is not as bad as chicken or pork
     
  7. Obi-wan

    Obi-wan Member

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    Lets keep it simple, Linoleic acid bad, stearic acid good
     
  8. managing

    managing Member

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    The glaring omission from the abstract is what were the actual SFA and PUFA they were fed (overfed)? And also what was the base diet (as others already mentioned).
     
  9. brocktoon

    brocktoon Member

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    Great -- now saturated fat is bad, and because I haven't hesitated to consume it over the past year, my fat-laden liver is now probably worse than ever? Or maybe this is just being posted to spur more contentious debate.
     
  10. Obi-wan

    Obi-wan Member

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    For fatty liver Alcohol and PUFA bad. In my opinion High fructose corn syrup( HFCS) bad but debatable. B Vit. good
     
  11. ecstatichamster

    ecstatichamster Member

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    I think it is a useful study. Keep in mind it is a small study, and very short. 3 weeks.

    Over feeding by 1000 kcal per day was done with primarily sat, unsat or carbs. Sat fat increased insulin resistance and the presence of triglycerides in the liver. Carbs came in second. Unsat fat came in third, in that it increased liver triglycerides least.

    I think that makes sense.

    But the summary at the end conflates insulin resistance with diabetes, which it is not. A small nitpick.

    This study does NOT show that "unsaturated fat is safer than saturated fat" although that is what will be reported. That is a common, very common, myth that has been promulgated since the 1950s. Dr. Peat has said because of the lobbying for seed oils.

    Overfeeding is bad, very bad. It will lead to your being sick. No question about it.
     
  12. x-ray peat

    x-ray peat Member

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    Yes, it's definitely the overfeeding. I love how these studies purposely push the intake levels of healthy foods to extremes and then try to demonize them based on the sought after results. 1,000 kcal of saturated fats is like a stick and and a half of butter. Im not surprised that the liver cant handle all of that.
    Why dont they give people half a bottle of lipitor per day and then make their statin recommendations from that?
     
  13. managing

    managing Member

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    HFCS being bad I don't think is so debatable. Although fructose itself is not bad, you have to look at context. RP has said that the problem with HFCS is not that it has fructose, but that people tend to overconsume it. Plus, I know I read somewhere that he believes there are additional sugars present that are not accounted for in the analysis. AND there are a lot of allergenic impurities.

    In short, I think it makes total sense to say that fructose from fruit is just fine (hard to overconsume too) and HFCS is bad. There is a reason he drinks Mexican Coke, and its not ONLY the fact that it tastes 1000x better. But even overconsuming that would be bad.

    EDIT: as I write, I am nursing a 355ml bottle of Mexican Coke. 39g of carbohydrate, so about 18.5g of fructose. I will sip it over the course of about an hour. I will enjoy it and it will get me through until lunch w/o the help of cortisol.

    A 20oz Coca Cola is 65g sugar so about 59 grams of fructose. But likely more unmeasured, and allergenic impurities to boot. And even that is a pretty modest size coke for most people. I've watched my brother slam one of those in about 5 minutes.
     
  14. jb116

    jb116 Member

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    He's never spoken about over consumption of fructose. What he did address regarding HFCS was the presence of large starch molecules in conjunction with possible impurities because of manufacturing the HFCS. He said otherwise in theory HFCS should be metabolically equivalent to sugar. This was all talked about on a KMUD.
     
  15. managing

    managing Member

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    Good distinction. I didn't mean consuming too much fructose, I meant easy to consume too many calories.
     
  16. Obi-wan

    Obi-wan Member

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    HFCS makes me gain weight. Even one coke a day...
     
  17. managing

    managing Member

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    No doubt. If I am traveling and can't find Mexican coke I might have on once in a blue moon.

    Presumably it is those starch particles and allergens . . .
     
  18. OP
    Mito

    Mito Member

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    SAT - coconut oil, butter, and blue cheese (76% SFA/21% MUFA/3% PUFA)

    UNSAT - olive oil, pesto, pecans, butter (57% MUFA/22% PUFA/21% SFA)

    Carbs - OJ, sugar sweetened beverage, candy
     
  19. Kartoffel

    Kartoffel Member

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    Given that A.A. Nanjii has demonstrated that saturated fats like butter protect the liver and prevent and reverse cirrhosis while unsaturated fats are detrimental to the liver in just every way, I wouldn't start hyperventilating seeing this study. A little extra (saturated) fat in the liver isn't harmful. I wonder why they chose to include a significant portion of moldy blue cheese in the SAT group. You would assume that they choose a fairly "neutral" cheese to minimize any distorting variables like, well, mold.
     
  20. Spokey

    Spokey Member

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    That study is surely bunk. Saturated fats have been used successfully to treat liver disorders.
     
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