Role Of Nervous System In Rheumatoid Arthritis – Acetylcholine And TNF-alpha

Diokine

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Mar 2, 2016
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526
The inflammatory condition, called rheumatoid arthritis or rheumatism, is marked by degeneration and pain in the joints, muscles, and connective tissues. The disease shares many traits with other inflammatory “autoimmune” conditions like multiple sclerosis and lupus, but is especially associated with hardening of the joints and severe disability. The word rheumatism comes from the Greek rheuma which means stream, and classically the disease was thought to be caused by watery flows in the humors of the body. The nervous system plays a large role in the progression of this disease, and the proper flow of nervous tones throughout the body should be considered.

Smokers have a much higher incidence of rheumatism, and smoking will cause long term changes in the nervous response of the tissue through its action on acetylcholine receptors 1[2], among other factors. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, or TNF-A, is another factor critically involved in the severity of degeneration. TNF-A is part of a family of proteins that coordinate the metabolism of cells that are under inflammatory response of different degrees, intimately involved in immune response and eventually ordered cell death. The acetylcholine system play a role in regulating the regulation of inflammation and TNF 3[4]5

Excess of acetylcholine, or reduction in the breakdown of it by acetylcholinesterase, will increase the duration of nervous transmission. A critical reduction in the capacity for recycling of acetylcholine can be quickly fatal, and this is the mechanism of organophosphates used in chemical weapons. Degrees of capacity reduction much less than this, however, can cause serious disruptions in proper application of nervous tone. The acetylcholine system is also critically involved in the regulation of respiration6. It is hypothesized7 that chemoreceptors in the carotid body, measure the quality of blood and adjust respiration accordingly, in part through modulation from the acetylcholine system. If the acetylcholine system is intimately involved in the production and maintenance of breathing, than conversely breathing will have some influence on the qualitative function of the acetylcholine system, and the whole state of the nervous system in general.


1 - Cigarette Smoking Saturates Brain α4 β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

2 - The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, smoking, and Alzheimer’s disease

3- Role of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in regulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as revealed by subtype selective agonists.

4 - Modulation of TNF release by choline requires alpha7 subunit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated signaling.

5- Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation

6 - Central cholinergic regulation of respiration: nicotinic receptors

7- Carotid body chemoreceptor function: Hypothesis based on a new circuit model
 

Amarsh213

Member
Joined
Feb 26, 2017
Messages
1,015
The inflammatory condition, called rheumatoid arthritis or rheumatism, is marked by degeneration and pain in the joints, muscles, and connective tissues. The disease shares many traits with other inflammatory “autoimmune” conditions like multiple sclerosis and lupus, but is especially associated with hardening of the joints and severe disability. The word rheumatism comes from the Greek rheuma which means stream, and classically the disease was thought to be caused by watery flows in the humors of the body. The nervous system plays a large role in the progression of this disease, and the proper flow of nervous tones throughout the body should be considered.

Smokers have a much higher incidence of rheumatism, and smoking will cause long term changes in the nervous response of the tissue through its action on acetylcholine receptors 1[2], among other factors. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, or TNF-A, is another factor critically involved in the severity of degeneration. TNF-A is part of a family of proteins that coordinate the metabolism of cells that are under inflammatory response of different degrees, intimately involved in immune response and eventually ordered cell death. The acetylcholine system play a role in regulating the regulation of inflammation and TNF 3[4]5

Excess of acetylcholine, or reduction in the breakdown of it by acetylcholinesterase, will increase the duration of nervous transmission. A critical reduction in the capacity for recycling of acetylcholine can be quickly fatal, and this is the mechanism of organophosphates used in chemical weapons. Degrees of capacity reduction much less than this, however, can cause serious disruptions in proper application of nervous tone. The acetylcholine system is also critically involved in the regulation of respiration6. It is hypothesized7 that chemoreceptors in the carotid body, measure the quality of blood and adjust respiration accordingly, in part through modulation from the acetylcholine system. If the acetylcholine system is intimately involved in the production and maintenance of breathing, than conversely breathing will have some influence on the qualitative function of the acetylcholine system, and the whole state of the nervous system in general.


1 - Cigarette Smoking Saturates Brain α4 β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

2 - The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, smoking, and Alzheimer’s disease

3- Role of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in regulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as revealed by subtype selective agonists.

4 - Modulation of TNF release by choline requires alpha7 subunit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated signaling.

5- Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation

6 - Central cholinergic regulation of respiration: nicotinic receptors

7- Carotid body chemoreceptor function: Hypothesis based on a new circuit model

So smoking is even worse than thought?
 
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