Ray has written so many articles on how "autoimmune conditions" like MS, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus, psoriasis, etc are all metabolic diseases mostly driven by estrogen. After decades of denial by mainstream medicine, a study was just published by a team at Stanford that shows RA to be indeed a metabolic disease. More importantly, RA was found to be a disease caused by excessive reductive stress caused by excessive metabolism of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and accumulation of NAPDH and reduced glutathione, accompanied by reductions in oxidative phosphorylation. The PPP is a parallel pathway to glycolysis and exists primarily as a defense mechanism against the so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS). The excessive reductive stress apparently not only neutralizes the ROS but it also inhibits oxidative metabolism in the electron transport chain.
I read a review that gives a different take on NADPH. It puts a different light on NADPH as it is used actually in phagocytosis, where a respiratory (or oxidative) burst is needed to kill pathogens. It is actually used in creating ROS, as these are needed to kill pathogens. White blood cells are effective having the benefit of NADPH in creating ROS. Without ROS, white blood cells would be less effective and have to use other less effective means to deal with pathogens. With ROS, I get the impression less white blood cells are needed as they are very effective, armed with missile launchers, and without ROS, you need to have tons of white blood cells, equivalent to the Chinese hordes depicted in Korean War movies. This is going to create any remnants to form plaque, as well as a lot of inflammatory conditions.
This is the review: http://www.annclinlabsci.org/content/30/2/145.full.pdf
NADPH and the pentose phosphate pathway is scarcely mentioned in the forum, but its importance shouldn't be overlooked, as, among other things, it makes the sugars that are used to form nucleotides such as DNA and RNA. I found this series of blogs by an unknown blogger to be fascinating, regarding the PPP and thiamine:
Synergy Health & Wellness: The Pentose Phosphate Pathway: The missing link between hormonal imbalances and carbohydrate metabolism?
Synergy Health & Wellness: The importance of addressing thiamine status in adrenal fatigue
Synergy Health & Wellness: Redox balance, the pentose phosphate pathway, and adrenal function
Synergy Health & Wellness: NADPH, the folate cycle, and adrenal function
Synergy Health & Wellness: Acetylcholine and adrenal function: Is adrenal fatigue a lack of break fluid?
Synergy Health & Wellness: Thiamine, gut health, the immune system, and adrenal fatigue
The font and size makes the blog hard to read from my Chrome browser. I had to use the Mercury Reader extension to make it easier to read. I use Night Mode to make it easier on my eyes as well. Overall, it is well-organized and well-explained.