Overfeeding Palm Oil Causes More Liver And Visceral Fat Accumulation Than Sunflower Oil

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by Thomas, Feb 25, 2014.

  1. Thomas

    Thomas Member

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  2. j.

    j. Guest

    They were trying to eat calories in excess, pretty unnatural.
     
  3. Blossom

    Blossom Moderator

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    I think in an excessive calorie situation the body may try to hang on to the safe and good saturated fat while perceiving the PUFA as a toxin. It could also be triggering an excessive amount of cortisol to counteract inflammation. I was ripped on paleo with high PUFA from cold water fish,nuts and seeds. Even my weight lifting husband commented about this situation. I felt awful though after the first few months when my high from my bodies own adaptive stress hormones started taking it's toll. To some I looked great but I felt horrible. I wonder how long this study lasted? I know it wasn't low carb but I think with time you would see some negatives with the high PUFA despite the initial finding of less abdominal fat. :2cents
     
  4. aquaman

    aquaman Member

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    I'd love to hear RP's analysis of this
     
  5. J1000

    J1000 New Member

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    How is this article's result possible? Any thought?

    So, the other day i got a message with a screenshot from a newspaper with info of a new article published.
    The article (abstract) states that a diet in PUFA caused "healthy people to gain lean mass" more, while SFA (saturated) caused abdominal fat gain to a higher degree. Both groups gained weight equal, but PUFA group got more muscle, SFA group more fat. Now i only have access to the abstract online which is here http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/co ... 1622.short

    So its hard to validate if its properly done but Uppsala University is a pretty famous Uni in Sweden.

    Anyway, i wanted to know how they can even come to this conclusion, caus i cant seem to figure out what can caus a result like this (assuming it is properly done and nothing else is creating the effect).

    How is it even possible to get these results? Why would SFA contribute to fat gain, and PUFA not.
    I have done Peat for 3 months, and clearly feel better, have not accumulated fat differently than calculated, and have not lost lean muscle (i do weights and my lifts are going up so im 100% sure).

    They used muffins with same recipe but either palm oil or sunfloweroil for 7 weeks, in addition to the daily foodintake.
     
  6. j.

    j. Guest

  7. Mittir

    Mittir Member

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    This study lasted 7 weeks and not an isocaloric total feeding. They should have used pure
    PUFA vs Saturated fat instead of comparing Sunflower vs Palm oil.
    I do not see the justification in over feeding ,other than an attempt to do
    a short study to make big claims.

    Here is the link to full study http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/co ... -1622.long
    Your guess is right that body tries to spend toxic omega-6 as energy over other fat sources
    as soon as it is ingested. RP mentioned that there is little harm when PUFA is used as energy
    without getting stored. PUFA is at it's worst when it is stored. Once PUFA is stored
    body/fat cell preferentially uses saturated fat as energy over PUFA.
    This causes body to become saturated
    with PUFA over time. When body is saturated with PUFA then every time body uses
    fat source as energy large amount of PUFA is released.
    RP mentioned that it is a good idea to use thyroid untill saturated fat to PUFA ratio is 2:1.
    Their result will be very different if they continue this study for 4-5 years.
    By that time fatty tissue will have 70% PUFA, reflecting dietary intake of sunflower oil.
    I do not believe these authors do not know that Omega-6 is very inflammatory.
    Similar things happen with fish oil. Body breaks down fish oil before it is stored and
    it's break down products are anti-inflammatory in short term and immunosuppressive
    in long term.
     
  8. Blossom

    Blossom Moderator

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    I felt that Peat had written extensively on the topic of PUFA. I'm pretty new still at this approach but I do know there is a lot more involved in the health of humans beyond abdominal fat,
     
  9. j.

    j. Guest

    This study wasn't even replicated. A few weeks ago I read an article that listed several "landmark" studies in cancer. When they tried to replicate some of them, they got opposite results.
     
  10. Blossom

    Blossom Moderator

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    Great point.
     
  11. j.

    j. Guest

    Link

    So even if this study could be replicated with the same results, which we don't know, it holds for people trying to "overfeed" themselves, probably there are very few. It also doesn't say what will happen if the diet lasted a different amount of time, like years.
     
  12. skominac

    skominac Member

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    If they used Palm oil then they did not really use saturated fat because palm oil is a combo of unsaturated and saturated fat.
     
  13. Jobed

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    [ moderator edit: threads merged ]

    What do you guys think of this study?

    "Overfeeding Polyunsaturated and Saturated Fat Causes Distinct Effects on Liver and Visceral Fat Accumulation in Humans
    Authors
    Abstract

    Excess ectopic fat storage is linked to type 2 diabetes. The importance of dietary fat composition for ectopic fat storage in humans is unknown. We investigated liver fat accumulation and body composition during overfeeding saturated (SFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat. LIPOGAIN was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial. Thirty-nine young and normal-weight individuals were overfed muffins high in SFA (palm oil) or n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) for 7 weeks. Liver fat, visceral (VAT), subcutaneous abdominal (SAT), and total adipose tissue (TAT), pancreatic fat, and lean tissue was assessed by MRI. Transcriptomics were performed in SAT. Both groups gained similar weight. SFA however markedly increased liver fat compared with PUFA and caused 2-fold larger increase in VAT than PUFA. Conversely, PUFA caused a nearly 3-fold larger increase in lean tissue than SFA. Increase in liver fat directly correlated with changes in plasma SFA and inversely with PUFA. Genes involved in regulating energy dissipation, insulin resistance, body composition and fat cell differentiation in SAT were differentially regulated between diets, and associated with increased PUFA in SAT.

    In conclusion, overeating SFA promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage whereas excess energy from PUFA may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans."

    http://m.diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/ ... 1622.short
     
  14. Waremu

    Waremu Member

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    1. Palm oil is not a purely saturated fat like coconut oil almost is. Therefore, palm oil is not technically a true saturated oil. Per oz, palm oil contains 28 grams of fat -- half of which are only saturated, with the other half being unsaturated. In fact, palm oil is still high in PUFA. Just 1 oz of palm oil will give you 2.64g of PUFA, according to Cronometer.
    2. The study was only conducted for seven weeks, so long-term effects are unknown. This is important because PUFA has been shown to and is known to provide some *seemingly* positive health effects in the short-term, while in the long-term turn out to be highly inflammatory and estrogenic, anti-thyroid, etc.
    3. I would have liked to see a true saturated fat used, like coconut oil or maybe tallow. Because palm oil was used, I wouldn't use it as a reference of some kind to see how SFA performs against PUFA.
     
  15. jaa

    jaa Member

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    As j. mentioned in the other thread, they're also consuming excess calories. That results in negative health markers regardless of the diet.
     
  16. Wilfrid

    Wilfrid Member

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    The fatty acids isomeric position is also playing an often underestimated role in palm oil.
    And I think that is the number one problem in ANY studies using palm oil and labelling it as a saturated fatty acid source. It's not, even with a 50% saturated fatty acids content.
    After the digestive process, most of the saturated fatty acids are bound to calcium salt in the intestine and are not, for the most part, absorbed.
    The saturated fatty acids are mostly flushing down to the toilet.

    Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2002 Fall;57(3-4):319-41.
    Palm oil: biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological, and
    toxicological aspects: a review.
    Edem DO.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom
    State, Nigeria.
    The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular diseases has necessitated a
    growing research interest in palm oil, the second largest consumed vegetable oil 
    in the world. Palm oil, obtained from a tropical plant, Elaeis guineensis
    contains 50% saturated fatty acids, yet it does not promote atherosclerosis and
    arterial thrombosis. The saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid ratio of 
    palm oil is close to unity and it contains a high amount of the antioxidants,
    beta-carotene, and vitamin E. Although palm oil-based diets induce a higher blood
    cholesterol level than do corn, soybean, safflower seed, and sunflower oils, the 
    consumption of palm oil causes the endogenous cholesterol level to drop. This
    phenomenon seems to arise from the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar 
    isomeric position of its fatty acids.
    The benefits of palm oil to health include 
    reduction in risk of arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis, inhibition of
    endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, and reduction in blood
    pressure. Palm oil has been used in the fresh state and/or at various levels of
    oxidation. Oxidation is a result of processing the oil for various culinary
    purposes. However, a considerable amount of the commonly used palm oil is in the 
    oxidized state, which poses potential dangers to the biochemical and
    physiological functions of the body. Unlike fresh palm oil, oxidized palm oil
    induces an adverse lipid profile, reproductive toxicity and toxicity of the
    kidney, lung, liver, and heart. This may be as a result of the generation of
    toxicants brought on by oxidation. In contrast to oxidized palm oil, red or
    refined palm oil at moderate levels in the diet of experimental animals promotes 
    efficient utilization of nutrients, favorable body weight gains, induction of
    hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, adequate hemoglobinization of red cells and
    improvement of immune function. Howerer, high palm oil levels in the diet induce 
    toxicity to the liver as shown by loss of cellular radial architecture and cell
    size reductions which are corroborated by alanine transaminase to asparate
    transaminase ratios which are higher than unity.
    The consumtion of moderate
    amounts of palm oil and reduction in the level of oxidation may reduce the health
    risk believed to be associated with the consumption of palm oil. Red palm oil, by
    virtue of its beta-carotene content, may protect against vitamin A deficiency and
    certain forms of cancer.

    A more fair conclusion would have been: " overeating palm oil (not SFA) promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage whereas excess energy from PUFA may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans."
     
  17. Blossom

    Blossom Moderator

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    I wonder if they used Palm kernel oil or Palm fruit oil? I couldn't tell from the link but Palm kernel oil is generally 30% more saturated than Palm fruit oil. Either way it still seems like coconut oil would have been better for the study.
     
  18. himsahimsa

    himsahimsa Member

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    Peculiar Isomeric Position Of Its Fatty Acids

    Has anyone seen more detailed information about this? I mean structurally, chemically, not relative to its health effects. I looked over on Wiki and did a Google image search and didn't see anything.
     
  19. Blossom

    Blossom Moderator

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    I have some old Palm shortening in the cupboard and this was the fat breakdown on the label per serving: saturated-6 grams, monounsaturated- 5 grams and polyunsaturated- 1 gram. It does not specify if it is made from the kernel or the fruit.
     
  20. Blossom

    Blossom Moderator

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    My daughter told me not to use Palm oil because it is devastating the environment the way it is harvested. I'm not sure if that's true but I had read it when I was doing paleo so it might be folklore or could have some basis in reality. The fatty acid profile isn't horrible for occasional use if that label is correct.
     
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