Orange Juice Increases Nutrient Absorption By Inhibiting P-glucoprotein

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by General Orange, Nov 12, 2018.

  1. General Orange

    General Orange Member

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    It is known that Piperine extract found in black peppers can act as a supplement absorption booster. Orange juice can do the same thing with it's "methoxyflavones" via inhibiting the so called P-glycoprotein found in the gut and liver and so can make other substances more bioavailable.

    Polymethoxylated flavones in orange juice are inhibitors of P-glycoprotein but not cytochrome P450 3A4. - PubMed - NCBI

    Full PDF available here


    The presence in orange juice of compounds that specifically inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux transporter, but not the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozyme CYP3A4, was investigated.
    The uptake of [(3)H]vinblastine, a substrate of P-gp, by Caco-2 cells was measured. An ethyl acetate extract of orange juice did not affect the initial uptake rate of [(3)H]vinblastine but significantly increased the steady-state uptake, as did cyclosporin A (20 microM), an inhibitor of P-gp.
    No significant effect on the uptake of 3-O-[(3)H]methylglucose or [(14)C]phenylalanine by Caco-2 cells was found, compared with the control.
    When the extract was separated on a Cosmosil column, the eluate with 70% methanol showed the most potent ability to increase [(3)H]vinblastine uptake.
    Additional separation of the 70% methanol eluate on a silica gel column with hexane-acetone (3:1) gave 3,3',4',5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) and 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeretin).
    HMF, tangeretin, and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin), another methoxyflavone contained in orange juice, all increased the steady-state uptake of [(3)H]vinblastine by Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner.
    The order of potency of these compounds at the concentration of 50 microM was tangeretin > HMF > nobiletin.

    None of these methoxyflavones inhibited 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone catalyzed by CYP3A4.
    The ethyl acetate extract of orange juice and these methoxyflavones also increased steady-state [(3)H]vinblastine uptake by LLC-GA5-COL300 cells (a cell line transfected with human MDR1 cDNA).
    We conclude that these methoxyflavones enhanced vinblastine uptake by specifically inhibiting drug efflux via P-gp.
    They may have potential as agents for reversing multidrug resistance or for recovering the bioavailability of certain drugs.
     
  2. ecstatichamster

    ecstatichamster Member

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  3. Light

    Light Member

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    That should mean that Orange Juice increases the bioavailability of Emodin too.

    Piperine increases the absorption of Emodin by more than 200% by inhibiting its glucuronidation:
    Beneficial Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions: A Tool to Improve the Bioavailability of Poorly Permeable Drugs

    But it seems the Piperine:Emodin ratio is 1:1
    Effect of piperine on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of emodin in rats. - PubMed - NCBI

    And Piperine increases the biosynthesis and/or inhibits the degradation of serotonin:
    Black Pepper Piper Nigrum Increases Serotonin Synthesis

    plus black pepper might be pretty toxic.

    Can anyone estimate how much Orange Juice it would take to, say, Double the absorption of emodine?
     
  4. Sativa

    Sativa Member

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    Why not just buy 95% piperine powder online?
    I purchased 50g via a common bidding site, for use in my botanical tinctures.

    Alternatively, extracting your own can be a fun experience. It forms wonderful yellow crystals, and the process is verging on easy/straight-forward.
     
  5. Light

    Light Member

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    Piperine increases serotonin,
    I'm trying to find a way to enhance absorption of Emodin without causing potential damage somewhere else.
     
  6. Sativa

    Sativa Member

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    This could be one reason why:
    source: Piperine - HerbPedia

    Personally, i don't feel the serotonin synthesis from piperine is significant enough to be worried about. Speaking from a 'pharmacological' perspective here. But, if you are already in a state of excess serotonin, or a related state, then perhaps piperine or other pro-serotonin substances (MAO inhibitors etc) might be undesirable.

    Here's some insight into the mechanism that influences serotonin transport, directly influencing serotonin levels. This knowledge can be used to encourage reduced serotonin levels etc
     
  7. Sativa

    Sativa Member

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    Actually, via piperine's 5-HT1A receptor activation, this directly reduces/dampens the activity of all other serotonin 'receptors'...
     
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