- Jun 30, 2021
Oral spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced incidence of post-prandial dietary endotoxin, triglycerides, and disease risk biomarkers - PubMed
The key findings of the present study is that oral spore-based probiotic supplementation reduced symptoms indicative of "leaky gut syndrome".
AIMTo determine if 30-d of oral spore-based probiotic supplementation could reduce dietary endotoxemia.
METHODSApparently healthy men and women (n = 75) were screened for post-prandial dietary endotoxemia. Subjects whose serum endotoxin concentration increased by at least 5-fold from pre-meal levels at 5-h post-prandial were considered “responders” and were randomized to receive either placebo (rice flour) or a commercial spore-based probiotic supplement [Bacillus indicus (HU36), Bacillus subtilis (HU58), Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus clausii] for 30-d. The dietary endotoxemia test was repeated at the conclusion of the supplementation period. Dietary endotoxin (LAL) and triglycerides (enzymatic) were measured using an automated chemistry analyzer. Serum disease risk biomarkers were measured using bead-based multiplex assays (Luminex and Milliplex) as secondary, exploratory measures.
RESULTSData were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and a P < 0.05. We found that spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with a 42% reduction in endotoxin (12.9 ± 3.5 vs 6.1 ± 2.6, P = 0.011) and 24% reduction in triglyceride (212 ± 28 vs 138 ± 12, P = 0.004) in the post-prandial period Placebo subjects presented with a 36% increase in endotoxin (10.3 ± 3.4 vs 15.4 ± 4.1, P = 0.011) and 5% decrease in triglycerides (191 ± 24 vs 186 ± 28, P = 0.004) over the same post-prandial period. We also found that spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with significant post-prandial reductions in IL-12p70 (24.3 ± 2.2 vs 21.5 ± 1.7, P = 0.017) and IL-1β (1.9 ± 0.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.1, P = 0.020). Compared to placebo post supplementation, probiotic subject had less ghrelin (6.8 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 1.1, P = 0.017) compared to placebo subjects.
CONCLUSIONThe key findings of the present study is that oral spore-based probiotic supplementation reduced symptoms indicative of “leaky gut syndrome”.
Keywords: Metabolic endotoxemia, Chronic disease, Leaky gut syndrome, Probiotics, Multiplex, Cardiovascular disease, Inflammatory cytokines, High-fat meal challenge
Core tip: Dietary or metabolic endotoxemia is a condition that affects approximately 1/3 of individuals living in Western society. It is characterized by increased serum endotoxin concentration during the first five hours of the post-prandial period following consumption of a meal with a high-fat, high-calorie content. The key findings of the present study, were that 30-d of oral spore-based probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of dietary endotoxemia, which may be indicative of reduced gut permeability.
Results showed statistical significance in the spore-based probiotic group with a 42% reduction in post-prandial endotoxin, a 24% reduction in triglyceride, as well as significant reductions in post-prandial pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12p70 and IL-1. The results of the study suggest that oral spore-based probiotic supplementation may be a wonderful adjunct to a healthy diet and lifestyle for reducing symptoms indicative of “leaky gut syndrome”.
Beneficial spore-forming Bacillus strains are able to produce various antimicrobial and antifungal lipopeptides that help balance the internal bacterial environment within the host. Spore-based probiotics microbial balancers help to reduce or prevent overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria within the small intestines (SIBO), such as Candida albicans. Unlike lactic acid bacteria, spore-based probiotics are much more competitive against other strains, keeping invaders at bay and giving the host greater opportunity to return to homeostasis more quickly. After doing a complete secretome analysis, Cornell University determined that B. subtilis and B. clausii spores have intrinsic antibiotic-resistant genes and no toxin-producing genes, and can inhibit the cytotoxic effect of C. diff and B. cereus toxins.
A cell culture study showed that B. subtilis “can effectively maintain a favorable balance of microflora in the GI tract” as it produces a protective extracellular matrix...that could potentially protect an entire community of probiotic cells against unfavorable environmental conditions.” Data from the same study found that B. subtilis cells “possess robust anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus through activating the antimicrobial lipopeptide production pathway.” In vitro data showed that B. subtilis to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans and E. coli.
Furthermore, supplementation with this species presented an increase in beneficial Bifidobacteria within the intestinal microbiome, which is shown to result in improved intestinal barrier function, lower inflammation, and lower LPS levels. This may help achieve favorable clinical outcomes for symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases that are caused by dysbiosis.