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Low Liver Copper In Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease And Insulin Resistance

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by Douglas Ek, Mar 19, 2019.

  1. Douglas Ek

    Douglas Ek Member

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    A role for low hepatic copper concentrations in nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease. - PubMed - NCBI

    ”Copper has a role in antioxidant defense, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial function, and copper deficiency has been linked to atherogenic dyslipidemia. We aimed to investigate the potential role of copper availability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).”

    ”Hepatic copper concentrations in patients with NAFLD were lower than in control subjects (17.9+/-8.4 vs. 31.4+/-8.2 microg/g; P<0.001) and in patients with other liver diseases (P<0.05 for all liver diseases). In patients with NAFLD, lower liver copper was correlated with more pronounced hepatic steatosis (R=-0.248; P=0.010), fasting glucose (R=-0.245; P=0.008), and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS; R=0.363; P<0.001). Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; n=31) had lower hepatic copper concentrations than those with simple steatosis (n=93; P=0.038). Restriction of dietary copper in rats induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance (IR).”

    Copper deficiency may be a leading cause of ischaemic heart disease

    ”Copper is an essential trace element that has been an overlooked factor in IHD. Numerous animal and human studies have demonstrated that copper deficiency can cause IHD and that copper supplementation or adequate dietary copper can improve many of the risk factors for IHD. Copper deficiency could be driving much of the current burden of IHD in the population. Copper intakes have been declining and it appears that a large fraction of the population does not even consume the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for copper3 (0.9 mg per day) let alone an optimal intake of copper (2.6 mg per day).4Thus, it appears that much of the population is at risk of inadequate but especially suboptimal intakes of copper.”

    ”The oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) is thought to play a significant role in atherosclerosis.10 Copper deficiency increases the susceptibility of both LDL and other lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and very-low-density lioprotein (VLDL)) to oxidation.11 Lipoproteins from copper-deficient animals show increased formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances when exposed to oxidative reactions using iron, which indicates that copper may exert a protective effect against iron-induced oxidation.”

    ”Patients with hypercholesterolemia and supplemented with copper at 5 mg/day for 45 days had a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides, and an increase in HDL cholesterol.15 The results suggest that perhaps around 40% of patients with hypercholesterolemia may have marginal copper deficiency, and that their condition could be treated with copper supplementation.”

    ”In rats, a diet high in saturated fat increases cholesterol levels, with unsaturated fat having a protective effect. However, in copper-deficient animals, the level of dietary iron determines hyperlipidemia, not the type of dietary fat.17 The group of copper-deficient animals that were fed high-iron diets either died of ruptured hearts or developed severe anaemia, enlarged hearts and livers, hypercholesterolemia and elevated triglycerides. Thus, copper deficiency ties in with the iron hypothesis of heart disease, in which excess levels of stored body iron promote IHD.”

    ”More importantly, copper deficiency can lead to hepatic iron overload and cirrhosis19 20 with iron overload being treated by copper supplementation.21 Iron overload also induces mild copper deficiency.22 The severity of copper deficiency can also be reduced with iron chelators.23 Thus, copper deficiency contributes to iron excess in the body and vice versa.”

    ”The ratio of zinc to copper may also be important in the production of hypercholesterolemia. In rats, high ratios of zinc to copper in drinking water resulted in higher plasma cholesterol.24 Inadequate copper intake in humans can also result in increased cholesterol levels even when intake is only slightly below the RDA (0.83 mg per day).25 In humans, copper supplementation of adult men at 2 mg/day for 4 weeks increases levels of SOD and plasma diamine oxidase and significantly increases lag times for lipoprotein oxidation in those subjects with lower levels of stored body copper.26

    ”Copper deficiency in rats also results in upregulation of the proinflammatory enzyme COX-2, suggesting that copper may increase inflammation independently of SOD activity.46 Copper deficiency in animals leads to increased hepatic expression of genes involved in inflammation and fibrinogenesis47 and also increases nuclear factor kappa beta-1.48 Copper supplementation in rats fed a copper-deficient, high-sucrose diet restores beta-cell function and reduces pancreatic low-grade inflammation (reverses hyperglycemia and reduces the infiltration of fat and IL-1β-expressing macrophages).49 Thus, copper has multiple actions for controlling inflammation including the rise in cereuloplasmin.50 51

    Copper is key in burning fat: Scientist says results could provide new target for obesity research

    Copper seems to be important for everything improving insulin sensitivity, reducing high cholesterol, lowering COX which would lower estrogen and serotonin, reducing lipid peroxidation further reducin cox and estrogen, protecting against iron damage in liver and as I previously posted a study dopaminergic neurons in parkinsons. It also seems to play a role in weight loss and fat burning. From what I understand our soils are heavily depleted in copper and that glyphosate is also a copper chelator. As the study mentions I believe opti al copper levels are higher closer to the 1-2 mg per day. And I bet that a lot people barely get 0,5 mg per day. Also people supplement zinc wildly thus reducing copper even further. And take excess vitamin D reducing the livers capability to make ceruloplasmin out of copper.
     
  2. OP
    Douglas Ek

    Douglas Ek Member

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  3. lampofred

    lampofred Member

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    First you're pro-iron, now you're pro-copper, but they are essentially antagonists in the body. Make up your mind lol :lol:

    Or maybe you're just anti-zinc :shock:
     
  4. OP
    Douglas Ek

    Douglas Ek Member

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    If you go back to my original post when I joined ray peat It was all about copper and ceruloplasmin aswell. That then led me onto iron. Low copper and low/high iron often co-exist. All the symptoms of low iron can be explained by low copper. I did not know this back then since it’s very complex relation that not many people seem to know about. Iron and copper are not antagonistic to each other in that sense. They are synergestic. Iron is essential to a certain degree in our bodys for energy production. Copper is needed to regulate it. I’m pro proper iron metabolism since I do acknowledge the importance of these systems. And they are often overlooked. Why is it that you have to choose side and be affirmative of one thing. Did you at one time know everything and all the answers? I doubt so. My posting are just highlights for this comunity to share thoughts on the subjects. Not to share thoughts about ignorant comments like you just did. All my posts about the functions of iron has been correct. Have I ever told people they should supplement iron? No. I did so and I did feel the benefits you are supposed to get when you have low iron but I no longer believe you’re addressing the root cause when you supplement with iron. Also everything is different for everyone. Some are low zinc, some are high iron, some are low copper and I’ve always said I would never advice anyone to take any supplement without doing proper blood tests first. I’m here to learn and evolve my knowledge in this field and comments like yours are just a backlash to this community. I know some people feel frustrated that everything doesnt always align with their view or belief. I for one have acknowledge that I might wasn’t 100% right or didn’t see the full picture. I don’t think anyone has the full picture regarding how all nutrients in the human body interact. But if we analyse one piece at a time we can eventually map out a pretty complete picture. Trial and errors. I don’t do this because I have some kind of agenda I like to push. I do this just to learn. And I’m open for everyones opinions. As long as they are not rude, offending or harassing.
     
  5. OP
    Douglas Ek

    Douglas Ek Member

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  6. olive

    olive Member

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    Good post. I think with the popularity of high dose zinc supplements and excessive red meat consumption, copper deficiency is a real concern. I see many bodybuilder types walking around with grey hairs in their early 20s.
     
  7. Spondive

    Spondive Member

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    I agree and am very fascinated by copper
     
  8. lampofred

    lampofred Member

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    I was just joking around, hence the smilies. Sorry for wording it in a way that came across as offensive.
     
  9. OP
    Douglas Ek

    Douglas Ek Member

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    Yes I really don’t understand people talking about zinc deficiency. I feel it’s hard not to get the 10mg RDI from food. Think there’s another side to zinc aswell. Like I’ve seen some evidence that zinc can actually be low because of low copper. So even if you supplement zinc it wont help raising zinc levels.
     
  10. OP
    Douglas Ek

    Douglas Ek Member

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    Appreciate it;)
     
  11. methylenewhite

    methylenewhite Member

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    @Douglas Ek Thank you, an important find for me.
    What do you think about using copper-made cookware on daily basis?
     
  12. Dave Clark

    Dave Clark Member

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    Does anyone know whether sulfur, whether in food or MSM, competes with copper like zinc does? I have read that sulfur was a copper antagonist, and wondered if a diet high in sulfur, or taking high doses of MSM would cause copper dysregulation.
     
  13. OP
    Douglas Ek

    Douglas Ek Member

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    I don’t think it’s a problem. Dunno if that type of copper is inorganic and could be bad thats what the internet tout but I don’t believe them that much. But think supplemental copper is better option if you’re looking to boost levels. In human studies copper from supplements raise both serum copper and ceruloplasmin.
     
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