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Intermittent hypoxia training as non-pharmacologic therapy for cardiovascular diseases: Practical analysis on methods and equipment

aliml

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Apr 17, 2017
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The global industrialization has brought profound lifestyle changes and environmental pollutions leading to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases. Such tremendous challenges outweigh the benefits of major advances in pharmacotherapies (such as statins, antihypertensive, antithrombotic drugs) and exacerbate the public healthcare burdens. One of the promising complementary non-pharmacologic therapies is the so-called intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) via activation of the human body's own natural defense through adaptation to intermittent hypoxia. This review article primarily focuses on the practical questions concerning the utilization of IHT as a non-pharmacologic therapy against cardiovascular diseases in humans. Evidence accumulated in the past five decades of research in healthy men and patients has suggested that short-term daily sessions consisting 3–4 bouts of 5–7 min exposures to 12–10% O2 alternating with normoxic durations for 2–3 weeks can result in remarkable beneficial effects in treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and heart failure. Special attentions are paid to the therapeutic effects of different IHT models, along with introduction of a variety of specialized facilities and equipment available for IHT, including hypobaric chambers, hypoxia gas mixture deliver equipment (rooms, tents, face masks), and portable rebreathing devices. Further clinical trials and thorough evaluations of the risks versus benefits of IHT are much needed to develop a series of standardized and practical guidelines for IHT. Taken together, we can envisage a bright future for IHT to play a more significant role in the preventive and complementary medicine against cardiovascular diseases.


The above-discussed limitations and disadvantages of hypobaric chambers prompted studies in recent decades on a different and more practical form of IHT—normobaric hypoxia training, which is carried out by breathing of hypoxic gas mixtures under normobaric environment. A variety of technical implementations for this treatment approach have been tested, including normobaric hypoxia rooms or suites and the so-called hypoxicators—a new class of biomedical devices that was first introduced by the former Soviet Union scientists for simulating altitude training in military personnel and sportsmen and for treatment of various human diseases. These equipment or devices typically contain polymer membranes, which can separate O2 and N2, are convenient for generating the hypoxic gas mixtures in open circuit devices and chambers.
 

yerrag

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Mar 29, 2016
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9,146
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Manila
This is called medicine these days.

Accept the false padagogy of the crooked medical establishment and have medical high priests teach the masses the way to destroy your blood vessels. Then offer them no cures but drugs to manage the situation. Even condition the use of such drugs as a prerequisite to obtain healthcare insurance.

And now, offer them therapies of intermittent hypoxia . After all, why not? They will believe you because you're the doctor, and besides, what is there to lose?

Insurance will pay for it.

Laughable. But the world has no shortage of fools.
 

Amazoniac

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Sep 10, 2014
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Not Uganda

"[..]based on the published studies to date, the short stays at high altitude up to 3000–3500 m (corresponding to ∼14.5 to 13.5% inspired O2 at sea level) do not cause negative effects among the patients with subclinical coronary heart disease and hypertension. Actually in many cases the positive effects of high altitude sojourns on the patients' cardiovascular system were reported. However, high altitude sojourns require highly specialized medical and travel arrangements that usually involve higher financial costs and variabilities due to different mountain terrain and climate conditions. Therefore, it unlikely becomes a standardized mainstream medical therapy."​

- Organisms at high altitude - Wikipedia

- Hypoxic Hazards of Traditional Paper Bag Rebreathing in Hyperventilating Patients
 

aliml

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Apr 17, 2017
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"[..]people with heart attacks who were treated oxygen didn’t do any better than those who weren’t. This is a good example of a medical reversal – it seemed logical to give oxygen to people with heart attacks, because a heart attack is a blockage in one of the arteries that supply the heart, which means that the heart muscle isn’t getting enough oxygen. By increasing the oxygen level in the blood stream, even if only a small amount of that oxygen is able to get past the blockage, it should do some good. At least that was the thinking.

Unfortunately, logic often turns out be wrong, at least in medicine. As it turns out, oxygen isn’t the utterly benign substance it’s often made out to be. First, oxygen causes blood vessels to constrict, so by pushing up the oxygen saturation you could actually be worsening the blockage. Second, oxygen has an unfortunate tendency to form reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can wreak all kinds of havoc in our cells. We’ve evolved mechanisms to deal with these, but when a part of the body is depleted of oxygen for a while, many of our defences to deal with ROS are diminshed. If you then push up the oxygen arriving in an area enormously, say an area of heart muscle that’s been deprived of oxygen for a while but that now once again has good flow thanks to an intervention to remove the blockage, you might actually increase the damage to that area.

Long story short, it turned out that oxygen wasn’t good to give to people with heart attacks. It might even be bad. Thankfully, that practice has now stopped in most places. The realization that oxygen might actually be harmful in certain situations has led to a change in thinking about oxygen therapy. No longer is it viewed uncritically as a universal panacea that can be doled out generously to everyone who comes in through the doors of the hospital. At least that’s the case in theory. In practice, lots of patients still get oxygen who don’t need it."


The candle burns much faster in oxygen-enriched air - Joseph Priestley
 

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