Fats Cause Cause Cognitive Impairment And Insulin Resistance In The Brain

haidut

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The topic of whether fats cross the BBB is very controversial, especially in light of recent evidence that dementias like Alzheimer are simply so-called "diabetes of the brain". It is well-known in clinical circles that fats do cause insulin resistance, but the PUFA lobby is powerful enough to steer the blame towards sugar instead. This study below shows that even triglycerides (the esterified form of fat) that we form from dietary fat have a negative effect on insulin sensitivity and cognitive function. Lowering triglyceride levels quickly improved both parameters and thus support the use of anti-lipolytic substances like niacinamide, aspirin, vitamin E, progesterone, etc for brain conditions associated with fat-impaired metabolism.

Triglycerides cross the blood–brain barrier and induce central leptin and insulin receptor resistance
"...Human CSF was determined to contain triglycerides, a finding previously unclear. The radioactive triglyceride triolein readily crossed the BBB and centrally administered triolein and peripherally administered lipids induced in vivo leptin and/or insulin resistance at hypothalamic receptors. Central triolein blocked the satiety effect of centrally administered leptin. Decreasing serum triglycerides with gemfibrozil improved both learning and memory inversely proportionate to triglyceride levels. Conclusions: Triglycerides cross the blood–brain barrier rapidly, are found in human cerebrospinal fluid, and induce central leptin and insulin receptor resistance, decreasing satiety and cognition."
 

Koveras

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The topic of whether fats cross the BBB is very controversial, especially in light of recent evidence that dementias like Alzheimer are simply so-called "diabetes of the brain". It is well-known in clinical circles that fats do cause insulin resistance, but the PUFA lobby is powerful enough to steer the blame towards sugar instead. This study below shows that even triglycerides (the esterified form of fat) that we form from dietary fat have a negative effect on insulin sensitivity and cognitive function. Lowering triglyceride levels quickly improved both parameters and thus support the use of anti-lipolytic substances like niacinamide, aspirin, vitamin E, progesterone, etc for brain conditions associated with fat-impaired metabolism.

Triglycerides cross the blood–brain barrier and induce central leptin and insulin receptor resistance
"...Human CSF was determined to contain triglycerides, a finding previously unclear. The radioactive triglyceride triolein readily crossed the BBB and centrally administered triolein and peripherally administered lipids induced in vivo leptin and/or insulin resistance at hypothalamic receptors. Central triolein blocked the satiety effect of centrally administered leptin. Decreasing serum triglycerides with gemfibrozil improved both learning and memory inversely proportionate to triglyceride levels. Conclusions: Triglycerides cross the blood–brain barrier rapidly, are found in human cerebrospinal fluid, and induce central leptin and insulin receptor resistance, decreasing satiety and cognition."

Peat's talked about increased carbohydrate intake raising triglycerides.

Sounds like this would be more of a case for moderating portions/total food intake versus continuing to eat as normal and suppressing lipolysis - although the substances you mention could still certainly have benefits in certain cases.
 

benaoao

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If you look up lipogenesis, insulin and fat raise SCD1 which makes MUFA from SFA /making it very basic here

So in a sense carbs have the possibility to create problematic levels of TG. That’s why a priority is to get insulin sensitivity back up through dieting and lifestyle measures. Then you can up the carbs
 

Kartoffel

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Peat's talked about increased carbohydrate intake raising triglycerides.

Sounds like this would be more of a case for moderating portions/total food intake versus continuing to eat as normal and suppressing lipolysis - although the substances you mention could still certainly have benefits in certain cases.

Triglycerides made from sugar should be less harmful than those containing PUFA, but most studies show high sucrose diets to increase triglyceride levels far more than even high-fat diets. If triglycerides per se are detrimental to the brain, eating refined sucrose certainly can't be a good idea.
 

benaoao

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those studies are usually poorly designed with macro % that don't make sense. Like high sucrose and "low" 30% fat diet, what's going to happen? Of course trigs get sky high, since carbohydrates are the preferred source of energy.

I would only eat high sucrose if fats are below 10-15% at most, which is what is commonly seen in non western populations
 

Wagner83

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Peat's talked about increased carbohydrate intake raising triglycerides.

Sounds like this would be more of a case for moderating portions/total food intake versus continuing to eat as normal and suppressing lipolysis - although the substances you mention could still certainly have benefits in certain cases.
Fructose And Endotoxin [edwardjedmonds]

As an aside high-fat and high-carb meals make me limp, I store almost all the fat I eat on a high-carb diet. A high fat dinner will eradicate morning wood reliably. I'd be interested in trying coconuts but have no oven to open them, they look okayish on the shelves and ain't optimal for tennis table.
 
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Wagner83

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That's interesting and good to know

Important to point out that the diets were controlled in the study - I imagine triglycerides would still rise if carbohydrate calories were provided in excess of needs.

Anyone looking to optimize this would probably do best to test their triglycerides on their diet of choice.

On a lower fat diet is there something like excessive carbohydrates (given that it takes 500-600 grams to turn into fat)? Wouldn't it be a lot more dangerous to add fat to a high-carbohydrate diet rather than carbs? It's difficult to imagine one overconsuming whole fruits or starch. I wonder how sodas/liquid sucrose sources fit into this, same for higher triglycerides being a mere short-lived transition period to a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet, and a good reason for feeling less than optimal temporarily.
 

Koveras

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On a lower fat diet is there something like excessive carbohydrates (given that it takes 500-600 grams to turn into fat)? Wouldn't it be a lot more dangerous to add fat to a high-carbohydrate diet rather than carbs? It's difficult to imagine one overconsuming whole fruits or starch. I wonder how sodas/liquid sucrose sources fit into this, same for higher triglycerides being a mere short-lived transition period to a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet, and a good reason for feeling less than optimal temporarily.

It's not really a set amount - during the first few days of very high carbohydrate / excess calorie intake there might be a supersaturation of glycogen storage. After that period any and all carbohydrate calories consumed above maintenance calories will undergo DNL / will be stored as fat.
 

paymanz

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Triglycerides made from sugar should be less harmful than those containing PUFA, but most studies show high sucrose diets to increase triglyceride levels far more than even high-fat diets. If triglycerides per se are detrimental to the brain, eating refined sucrose certainly can't be a good idea.
total calorie intake(and portion size,as koveras said)and insulin sensitivity are factors deciding what percent of sugar turning into triglycerides.
 

tca300

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Interesting as Ray mentioned the military did a study to find out what kind of macronutrient ratio was best for mental function regarding fighter pilots and they concluded high fat was best. When I asked Ray about it he said, " having it ( dietary fat ) available for muscle metabolism spares glucose for the brain. " Maybe they used a mostly saturated fat for the study.
 

SOMO

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How many grams of FFA (SFA, MUFA and PUFA) would it take to reduce a person's Glucose Oxidation by 50%?
 

Kartoffel

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total calorie intake(and portion size,as koveras said)and insulin sensitivity are factors deciding what percent of sugar turning into triglycerides.

Of course, but the type of carbohydrate is the most important factor, at least in experiments with rodents. If you give them equal amounts of starch or sucrose, only the sucrose rats will develop dyslipidemia, even with a relatively normal percentage of carbohydrate in the diet. Refined sucrose has many protective effects, but it's drastic effect on triglycerides cannot be denied.

Nutr Rev. 2003 May;61(5 Pt 2):S27-33.
Effects of a high-sucrose diet on body weight, plasma triglycerides, and stress tolerance.
Kanazawa M1, Xue CY, Kageyama H, Suzuki E, Ito R, Namba Y, Osaka T, Kimura S, Inoue S.
Abstract
We examine the effects of feeding a high-sucrose diet on body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and stress tolerance in rats. Feeding a high-sucrose (60%) diet for 2 weeks did not induce a greater body weight gain compared with that of standard diet when caloric intake was similar in ventromedial hypothalamic-lesioned obese and sham-operated lean animals. The high-sucrose diet elevated plasma triglycerides by increasing the triglyceride secretion rate and decreasing the fractional catabolic rate in both groups. In response to stress, feeding a high-sucrose diet for one week induced enhanced gene expressions of heat shock proteins (HSP 70 and 27) and suppressed NOx production in the brain, whereas the standard diet did not. Results suggest that feeding a high-sucrose diet does not induce obesity in lean rats or enhance weight gain in obese rats, if caloric intake is appropriate. The diet does elevate plasma triglyerides in lean and obese rats, but it may have the potential to improve stress tolerance.


upload_2018-4-29_11-32-58.png
 

benaoao

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Those 2 weeks studies on rats with a sudden high sucrose intake mean pretty much nothing though, for the reasons outlined above and in the other thread that was quoted
 

Kartoffel

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Those 2 weeks studies on rats with a sudden high sucrose intake mean pretty much nothing though, for the reasons outlined above and in the other thread that was quoted

Why don't they mean anything? Studies with a longer duration yield just the same results. For example Laube et al. (1973) lasted 15 weeks.

Nutr Metab. 1973;15(4):273-80.
The effect of starch, sucrose, glucose and fructose on lipid metabolism in rats.
Laube H, Klör HU, Fussgänger R, Pfeiffer EF.

upload_2018-4-29_13-6-56.png
 

benaoao

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Why don't they mean anything? Studies with a longer duration yield just the same results. For example Laube et al. (1973) lasted 15 weeks.

it's not a matter of duration, it's a matter of being poorly designed and more generally if you give carbs to insulin resistant people, of course you're causing trouble

like I said, discussed a few posts above and in the other thread on endotoxin in a more extensive way
 

SOMO

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Those 2 weeks studies on rats with a sudden high sucrose intake mean pretty much nothing though, for the reasons outlined above and in the other thread that was quoted

Whenever someone posts a scientific study the common complains are:
1. Length of time (study was too short)
2. Rats/mice are not humans.
3. Isolation and exclusion of confounding factors.

2 weeks may not be very long, but if I eat wheat today, I will wake up with acne tomorrow. So sometimes negative effects of diet are near-instant or don’t take long to identify if someone is in touch with their body.
 

benaoao

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that personal anecdote isn't significant either for the same reasons outlined in the posts above. Unbiased reading is hard?

@Kartoffel the irony is you had it right in that other thread. Keep reading the properly designed studies ;)

huge amounts of refined fructose (25% of calories!) lead to slightly higher liver fat content, which is what you would expect given such a dramatic change of diet in such a short time.

It doesn't tell you anything about the real world. It isn't possible to get 25% of fructose from any existing food sources! Besides, even with the ridiculous amount of fructose, there wasn't any significant difference in fasting triglycerides or cholesterol. Triglycerides were acutally slightly lower in the fructose group, and there wasn't any adverse effect on weight.

I haven't seen any well-designed study showing any adverse effects of sucrose or free fructose+ glucose (honey, grapes, etc) on liver function.
 

stsfut

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Fish oil reliably lowers my trigs, but I know that is not peat-friendly. I feel better cognitively when using fish oil pills though...
 
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