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Excess Iron Is Associated With Diabetes, Obesity And Metabolic Syndrome

Discussion in 'Minerals' started by Hans, Aug 14, 2018.

  1. Hans

    Hans Member

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    By this time we are all aware that iron should be kept low. In this study iron is involved in insulin resistance, inflammation and fat gain.

    Iron homeostasis: a new job for macrophages in adipose tissue?
    "men and women in the highest quintile of serum ferritin (Ft) levels – the primary intracellular iron-storage protein that can be released in overload situations (see glossary) – had a relative risk of greater than 3.5 for developing diabetes"

    "In fact, this condition is now called dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS) [10] and it has even been suggested that serum Ft may serve as a surrogate marker for insulin resistance (IR) [11]. Although inflammatory cytokines can influence iron storage in various cell types, studies have shown that the link between elevated iron and obesity/diabetes is independent of inflammation"

    "iron depletion by phlebotomy, even in healthy subjects, has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity"

    "iron overload of adipocytes also contributes to local and systemic IR" So it would seem that when losing weight, someone can easily flood their system with iron, if iron stores are high.

    "Despite the link between iron-overload and obesity mentioned above, inflammation in obesity also leads to iron-deficient anemia [20]. Linking obesity with both tissue iron overload and iron deficient anemia"

    Iron is recycled by the macrophages, and CD163, which is a scavenger receptor on the macrophages, binds and endocytoses haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes to prevent hemoglobin-induced toxicity.
    Inflammation removes the CD163 from the macrophages and forms soluble CD163 (sCD163), and sCD163 is therefore sometimes used as a biomarker of tissue macrophage activation.

    "CD163 expression on tissue macrophages is increased in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, and celiac disease and it is also highly expressed on tumor-associated macrophages.

    sCD163 is elevated in obesity, diabetes, and gestational diabetes"

    "chronic inflammation-induced hepcidin expression, increased serum Ft reflective of tissue iron overload occurs concomitantly with anemia." Hepcidin inhibits iron absorption, and release from tissue liver, resulting in overload and anemia at the same time. Adipose tissue, macrophages and inflammation increase hepcidin.

    "iron chelation, result in iron depletion and antiadipogenic effects in human AT explants"
    Reducing iron can reduce fat gain.
    Iron also stimulates lipolysis by increasing lipid peroxidation end product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). Excess iron combined with PUFAs can easily lead to excess lipolysis and elevated free fatty acids in the blood leading to dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance.

    Nitric oxide and endotoxins increase iron retention.
    IL-4 and IL-10 has been shown to induce M2-like macrophage polarization and inhibits NO-induced iron retention. Saturated fat, especially stearic acid, increases IL-4, IL-10 and M2 polarization, thus would improve iron handling.

    "serum Ft is an indication of systemic iron-overload. However, this may be an oversimplification, as the site of iron-overload cannot be determined simply from measuring serum Ft. It is clear that many different metabolic tissues, including pancreas, liver, and AT, may be relevant to the metabolic perturbations associated with iron-overload"
     
  2. Nighteyes

    Nighteyes Member

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    Thanks for This - Very important part about the stearic acid. Chocolate/cocoa really is an amazing food and I Think the copper can help with iron balancing as well. I pair the chocolate with plenty of potassium and time it after a protein Rich meal so the copper gets used properly. No wonder every centenarian digs it
     
  3. OP
    Hans

    Hans Member

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    Yes copper is needed for iron handling. I'm starting to like chocolate/cocoa more and more.
     
  4. raypeatclips

    raypeatclips Member

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    Thanks for this! Interesting topic. I wonder how much people could benefit from regular blood donation and whether it should be included more in the regular suggestions people have here alongside reduce pufa, saturated fat sole source, carrot salad etc

    And +1 on the chocolate part too. I do see it keep being mentioned by the long lived as well.
     
  5. raypeatclips

    raypeatclips Member

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    Without meaning to derail the thread so soon. Have either of you considered what an optimal amount of chocolate to eat per day would be?
     
  6. Nighteyes

    Nighteyes Member

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    I am still playing with the amounts and percentage of cocoa. At the moment I am using 70% at around 50 g per day. I have high copper on my hair test (last fall) so I am cautious about making sure that whatever copper I ingest is properly used/bound in blood. I think the high hair copper is a result of excess unbound copper in blood. Potassium is key here as it magnesium and aminos (yes I sound like gbolduev)....

    Edit: another strong point for chocolate is that it's magnesium and potassium content is already quite good so should help utilize the copper
     
  7. Nighteyes

    Nighteyes Member

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    An on-topic note to the whole iron/mineral accummulation issue: I really think the key is that minerals should either be bound/used or not ingested at all. The problem these days is more likely overmineralization without proper electrolyte and B-vitamin support. Problems arise with the accummulation of any metal/mineral really (manganese, iron, etc) due to inactivity. Sweating and moving around is a great way to eliminate excess iron for instance.. Just a point worth mentioning. Either use your minerals or dont ingest too much (which basically means dont sit around eating all day :P)
     
  8. OP
    Hans

    Hans Member

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    I guess it depends on how my other nutrients for the day are looking like. If I ingest mainly milk for the day, I would add almost 100g of cocoa to make up for the missing nutrients.

    A few years ago I overate on liver, like 250g daily for a few weeks lol, so now I'm making sure to keep nutrient intake balanced and not excessive.

    But in terms of cocoa butter, you can surely eat a lot :)
     
  9. raypeatclips

    raypeatclips Member

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    Wow! How were you towards the end of your liver eating phase?
     
  10. OP
    Hans

    Hans Member

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    I started getting dandruff, joint pain and severe alcohol intolerance, but I think that's the only things that happened at that time that I can think of. I was very active then and sweated a lot, so that probably helped me get rid of some excess minerals.
     
  11. sunraiser

    sunraiser Member

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    My feeling is that it's another case in which the correlation isn't entirely useful. Iron accumulation is a symptom and not the root - these correlational studies are effectively useless when perceived in this context as they're likely to send you down the wrong path.

    With metabolic insufficiency and a lack of sufficient ATP to both retain magnesium and ensure magnesium gets into the cells then you'll be left with an inability to properly uptake iron (through low ceruloplasmin alongside lower retinol binding protein creation).

    If you're utterly unable to address this then perhaps avoiding iron and copper is a way to avoid the worst of the symptoms, but you'll still be living with copper and iron deficiency alongside a poor immune system which is hardly a way to live.

    Calcium being in the wrong places in the body can sometimes be at the root of this, but it's difficult to know the best approach to resolve it.
     
  12. OP
    Hans

    Hans Member

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    I think inflammation/infection is one of the main reasons for iron toxicity and anemia at the same time. And then inflammation can come from PUFAs, iron, fatty liver, the gut, etc., so it would be best to fix gut and liver health, lower PUFAs, etc., to lower the inflammation. So fixing that would also contribute a great deal to improving iron handling.
     
  13. JustAGuy

    JustAGuy Member

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    But, do we know if this excess iron is actually caused by a too high iron intake or rather an effect/result that happens when the body is not functioning optimally metabolically?

    I’d think the average diet of the obese (Sugar drinks, fried foods, cookies, pizza) would be pretty low in iron compared to the whole grain, vegetables and fruit consuming population?

    This would make me think the excess iron present would rather be a result of a body not working properly rather than an excessive intake of iron.
     
  14. raypeatclips

    raypeatclips Member

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    Possibly, but iron fortified flour is a source of "hidden" iron, and breakfast cereals contain a ridiculous amount of iron. If people aren't donating blood regularly, it can be easy to see how it eventually builds up to dangerous amounts.
     
  15. OP
    Hans

    Hans Member

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    I think it's a combination of both. Like Raypeatclips is saying, lots of foods are fortified with iron. And many people are deficient in cofactors needed for proper iron handling, and then have gut/liver issues as well as inflammation which also interferes with proper iron handling.
     
  16. managing

    managing Member

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    Supplementing stearic acid has been great for me. Much better than chocolate. 1to2 teaspoons before breakfast and lunch is what I've been doing.
     
  17. EIRE24

    EIRE24 Member

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    What happened when you did this?
     
  18. EIRE24

    EIRE24 Member

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    You say you got dandruff but I thought liver was supposed to combat liver and skin issues? I love the taste of liver but have only seen problems from eating it also...
     
  19. OP
    Hans

    Hans Member

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    Well the problems for me wasn't like screaming in my face either. It was pretty mild. Maybe there happened some other thing to me as well which I can't remember because I wasn't paying much attention to how I was feeling back then.
    250g of beef liver contains 24mg copper, 42k IU vitamin A and 12mg of iron, and to consume that daily for a few week, will surely lead to buildup. I'm sure some of that vitamin A got oxidized and started doing damage. The dandruff severity increased slowly over time. I was also eating lots of PUFAs before consuming all that liver, so when I was cutting, I had a lot of PUFAs flooding my liver, reacting with the iron.
    I'm just thinking of what could have went wrong, but the most notable things that happened was an increase in anxiety, alcohol intolerance and dandruff. I also seem to have gotten stubborn fat on my lower abs, around my waist and lower back, which I did not have before, so I think I have gotten liver damage and/or fatty liver.
    My skin was pretty normal then, but is still now, and I'm on a much lower vitamin A diet at the moment.

    Edit: I was also consuming 250g of spinach with the liver, which could have made the problem even worse by giving me tons of nitrates, which is a bad combo with the iron.
    During the rest of the day I also consumed 450g of sirloin, which gave me even more iron. I totaled at around 45mg daily for iron.
     
  20. tankasnowgod

    tankasnowgod Member

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    According to USDA food intake data, Iron intake is the highest it has been in the past 100 years. In fact, it's almost 50% higher than it was in the 60's.

    Considering this extra iron is largely from "Fortification" of bread and grains (including most processed food) and supplements, it's very likely we are eating more iron than at any point in human history.

    Add in a sedentary lifestyle (some iron is lost through sweat), and an abandonment of bloodletting practices in the late 19th century (which was popular worldwide), and it means most people are dealing with an unprecedented and excessive iron load.

    Yes, some of it is due to genetic disorders like Hereditary Hemochromatosis, and other diseases, but the iron burden on the average person is still very heavy.
     

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