Effects Of Regular Walking On Chronic Idiopathic Constipation

Amazoniac

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Atman

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The problem of walking is that there's no immediate reward involved, unlike intense exercise. If it's not a habit, it can feel stupid, a waste of energy and time.
Can you elaborate on that? Does it take weeks for the benefits to manifest? I thought the improvement could be felt pretty much after the first hour.
 

TripleOG

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Yea, prolonged walking is the most sure-fire way for me to instantly improve gut motility during bouts of constipation. Effects last for multiple days. Running and other forms of HIIT sometimes exacerbate the problem.
 

Amazoniac

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Can you elaborate on that? Does it take weeks for the benefits to manifest? I thought the improvement could be felt pretty much after the first hour.
Lack of reward from low-level activity was discussed here:
Physical Activity: Whence Its Healthfulness? - Perfect Health Diet | Perfect Health Diet

I didn't read any of these, but it's easy to find them and very difficult to find ones about detrimental effects from moderate activity.
"A sedentary life is the commonest cause of constipation."
Somewhere on that thread there is a comment about mailman experiencing constipation, but this is the extreme opposite of cases.

A good deal of up of the hills walking, and incorporating some occasional breathless bursts can be beneficial as well.
 

Mufasa

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The problem of walking is that there's no immediate reward involved, unlike intense exercise.

I think a bigger problem is a human being that needs immediate reward for any activity that it does.
Seems like the same kind of mindset that a drugs addict has.
 

Amazoniac

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The beneficial effects aren't limited to constipata.

This thread by @Markus reminded me of this:


And this:

- Physical Activity and Hippocampal Sub-Region Structure in Older Adults with Memory Complaints

"Considerable evidence exists in the literature to suggest that regular physical exercise confers reduced risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia [1–3] and has beneficial effects in maintaining cognitive functions in older adults [4, 5]. Further, several randomized trials have documented better cognitive performance after 6 or 12 months of exercise compared with sedentary controls [1]."

"In addition to establishing associations between physical activity (PA) and cognitive function, studies have shown that PA affects regional brain structure."

"A total of 29 non-demented older adults (60–89 years old) with memory complaints were recruited through advertisements, media coverage, and referrals from physicians and families."

"Subjects were instructed to wear [a] monitors for 2-weeks throughout the day to measure levels of activity, including number of steps walked daily as well as time spent walking daily."

"Based on the distribution of the number of steps walked daily, we categorized the subjects into either “lower” or “higher” physical activity groups depend- ing on whether they walked less than or equal to 4000 steps per day (lower PA group; n = 13) or more than 4000 steps per day (higher PA group; n = 13). The median of number of steps walked per day for the study sample was 4009 (range 862–14355). In addition to the average number of steps walked daily, the accelerometer also collected data on average total time spent walking daily, and average total distance walked daily. The latter two measures were highly and significantly correlated with the number of steps walked daily (Spearman correlation coefficients: r = 0.93, 0.92 respectively, both p≤0.0001); we therefore examined only one of these physical activity measures and chose number of steps walked daily as the measure of interest. This choice was based on the fact that pedometers are simple and inexpensive and are more likely to be adopted for clinical and real world applications, including direct use by public [16] even if they are less sensitive to very slow walking [17], as opposed to the relative expense of accelerometers and their associated intensive data management requirements, which limit their use to research purposes [16]."
.
upload_2018-9-2_8-41-34.png

"While previous reports have examined the association between physical activity and brain volume [19], few studies have focused in the relationship between cortical thickness and physical activity. A previous report indicated that even in the absence of significant MTL [Microsystems Techmology Laboratories], cranial or brain volume changes over time, greater cortical thinning in MTL sub-regions is observed in older subjects at risk for Alzheimer’s disease [12] and thinner cortical regions may increase susceptibility to subtle pathological changes as incipient Alzheimer’s disease progresses. The finding of this study that greater physical activity is associated with greater thickness in subjects with memory complaints may provide further impetus for research into possible interventions that focus on physical activity to target memory problems in older adults. Furthermore, the current results also point to the utility of MTL structure integrity as a potential biomarker for adequate activity with aging and for examining the effects of an exercise intervention."

"Participants in the study were categorized into two groups, using 4000 steps walked daily as the cut-off, based on the distribution of the observed data. Interestingly, in the long-running Nakanojo Study that includes almost 500 participants aged 65 years and older, results indicated that better mental health is associated with walking more than 4000 steps per day and/or >5 min/day at intensity >3 metabolic equivalents while better physical health is associated with >8000 steps [20]. A recent review that assessed how many steps per day are required for optimal health concluded that healthy, older adults need at least an average of 7100 steps per day [16]. It is noteworthy that this threshold is comparable to the mean steps/day of the higher PA group. Moreover, the same study observed that for older adults with chronic diseases or disability, the recommended number of steps is 4600 steps/day, which is comparable to the cut-off used in the present study. We also note that 4000 steps per day are easily achievable by older adults and correspond to 30–40 minutes of walking. The observed effects of PA on cognitive domains in the current study are consistent with several previous studies [21–23]. In a sample of 93 adults aged 60 and older, it was observed that a higher level of physical functioning (testing included several walking measures) was significantly associated with greater processing speed and better executive functions but was not associated with better memory performance [21]. Our results strengthen the existing evidence linking PA to cognitive performance and, in particular, to processing speed and executive function."

"While the exact mechanism of how physical exercise benefits cortical thickness is uncertain, several possibilities exist. Some studies have suggested that PA can increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and brain. More specifically, a recent investigation observed that among 19 healthy older adults, a 35-min session of physical activity has a significantly larger impact on serum BDNF levels than either cognitive training or mindfulness practice [24]. Physical activity is also thought to increase hippocampal synaptic plasticity either directly via signal transduction mechanisms or indirectly by increasing BDNF levels, which in turn regulate specific signal transduction mechanisms [25]. In addition, exercise may augment the effects of BDNF on synaptic-plasticity, through a positive feedback loop in which it concurrently increases the mRNA levels of both itself and its receptor [26]. Therefore, BDNF up-regulation, strongly evoked by PA, potentiates the protection of neurons from eventual damage and favors neurogenesis and plasticity [27]. Interestingly, a recent systematic review concluded that aerobic exercise was a major source for the enhancement of BDNF-dependent executive functioning [28], consistent with our finding of increased PA and enhanced executive functioning. PA also has been associated with a reduction of plasma amyloid-nondio levels [29, 30], which are associated with a greater risk of cognitive impairment [30, 31]."

"[..]a recently proposed theory, the Adaptive Capacity Model, explores an evolutionary connection between hippocampal structures and exercise [32]. This model suggests that during aging, the brain responds adaptively by diminishing capacity so as to reduce energy costs, leading to age-related regional brain atrophy and associated function, while engaging exercise in late life can adaptively increase capacity, thus reducing the impacts of cognitive aging [32]."
.
@Constatine @Zpol
 

raypeatclips

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The beneficial effects aren't limited to constipata.

This thread by @Markus reminded me of this:


And this:

- Physical Activity and Hippocampal Sub-Region Structure in Older Adults with Memory Complaints

"Considerable evidence exists in the literature to suggest that regular physical exercise confers reduced risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia [1–3] and has beneficial effects in maintaining cognitive functions in older adults [4, 5]. Further, several randomized trials have documented better cognitive performance after 6 or 12 months of exercise compared with sedentary controls [1]."

"In addition to establishing associations between physical activity (PA) and cognitive function, studies have shown that PA affects regional brain structure."

"A total of 29 non-demented older adults (60–89 years old) with memory complaints were recruited through advertisements, media coverage, and referrals from physicians and families."

"Subjects were instructed to wear [a] monitors for 2-weeks throughout the day to measure levels of activity, including number of steps walked daily as well as time spent walking daily."

"Based on the distribution of the number of steps walked daily, we categorized the subjects into either “lower” or “higher” physical activity groups depend- ing on whether they walked less than or equal to 4000 steps per day (lower PA group; n = 13) or more than 4000 steps per day (higher PA group; n = 13). The median of number of steps walked per day for the study sample was 4009 (range 862–14355). In addition to the average number of steps walked daily, the accelerometer also collected data on average total time spent walking daily, and average total distance walked daily. The latter two measures were highly and significantly correlated with the number of steps walked daily (Spearman correlation coefficients: r = 0.93, 0.92 respectively, both p≤0.0001); we therefore examined only one of these physical activity measures and chose number of steps walked daily as the measure of interest. This choice was based on the fact that pedometers are simple and inexpensive and are more likely to be adopted for clinical and real world applications, including direct use by public [16] even if they are less sensitive to very slow walking [17], as opposed to the relative expense of accelerometers and their associated intensive data management requirements, which limit their use to research purposes [16]."
.
View attachment 10509

"While previous reports have examined the association between physical activity and brain volume [19], few studies have focused in the relationship between cortical thickness and physical activity. A previous report indicated that even in the absence of significant MTL [Microsystems Techmology Laboratories], cranial or brain volume changes over time, greater cortical thinning in MTL sub-regions is observed in older subjects at risk for Alzheimer’s disease [12] and thinner cortical regions may increase susceptibility to subtle pathological changes as incipient Alzheimer’s disease progresses. The finding of this study that greater physical activity is associated with greater thickness in subjects with memory complaints may provide further impetus for research into possible interventions that focus on physical activity to target memory problems in older adults. Furthermore, the current results also point to the utility of MTL structure integrity as a potential biomarker for adequate activity with aging and for examining the effects of an exercise intervention."

"Participants in the study were categorized into two groups, using 4000 steps walked daily as the cut-off, based on the distribution of the observed data. Interestingly, in the long-running Nakanojo Study that includes almost 500 participants aged 65 years and older, results indicated that better mental health is associated with walking more than 4000 steps per day and/or >5 min/day at intensity >3 metabolic equivalents while better physical health is associated with >8000 steps [20]. A recent review that assessed how many steps per day are required for optimal health concluded that healthy, older adults need at least an average of 7100 steps per day [16]. It is noteworthy that this threshold is comparable to the mean steps/day of the higher PA group. Moreover, the same study observed that for older adults with chronic diseases or disability, the recommended number of steps is 4600 steps/day, which is comparable to the cut-off used in the present study. We also note that 4000 steps per day are easily achievable by older adults and correspond to 30–40 minutes of walking. The observed effects of PA on cognitive domains in the current study are consistent with several previous studies [21–23]. In a sample of 93 adults aged 60 and older, it was observed that a higher level of physical functioning (testing included several walking measures) was significantly associated with greater processing speed and better executive functions but was not associated with better memory performance [21]. Our results strengthen the existing evidence linking PA to cognitive performance and, in particular, to processing speed and executive function."

"While the exact mechanism of how physical exercise benefits cortical thickness is uncertain, several possibilities exist. Some studies have suggested that PA can increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and brain. More specifically, a recent investigation observed that among 19 healthy older adults, a 35-min session of physical activity has a significantly larger impact on serum BDNF levels than either cognitive training or mindfulness practice [24]. Physical activity is also thought to increase hippocampal synaptic plasticity either directly via signal transduction mechanisms or indirectly by increasing BDNF levels, which in turn regulate specific signal transduction mechanisms [25]. In addition, exercise may augment the effects of BDNF on synaptic-plasticity, through a positive feedback loop in which it concurrently increases the mRNA levels of both itself and its receptor [26]. Therefore, BDNF up-regulation, strongly evoked by PA, potentiates the protection of neurons from eventual damage and favors neurogenesis and plasticity [27]. Interestingly, a recent systematic review concluded that aerobic exercise was a major source for the enhancement of BDNF-dependent executive functioning [28], consistent with our finding of increased PA and enhanced executive functioning. PA also has been associated with a reduction of plasma amyloid-nondio levels [29, 30], which are associated with a greater risk of cognitive impairment [30, 31]."

"[..]a recently proposed theory, the Adaptive Capacity Model, explores an evolutionary connection between hippocampal structures and exercise [32]. This model suggests that during aging, the brain responds adaptively by diminishing capacity so as to reduce energy costs, leading to age-related regional brain atrophy and associated function, while engaging exercise in late life can adaptively increase capacity, thus reducing the impacts of cognitive aging [32]."
.
@Constatine @Zpol

Thanks for this. I'm getting very interested in this topic recently.
 

Amazoniac

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Thanks for this. I'm getting very interested in this topic recently.
'Yeah, dude!'—Gilchrist, Stephen G.

It's such a simple measure that effects many aspects of health. If you search for 'walking activity condition', it's often something positive out of it. And when nothing good was noted, there wasn't anything bad either.

The reason for tagging Zpol is because she mentioned some issues that get in the way of her walking out and side on cold days. There are publications about walking in the doors not being as fenebicial but I guess much better than not exercising.
Ecstatic Hamster's Weight Loss, Headaches And Raising Metabolism Log
There are cheaper (often worse) models available that should work as well (not requiring Zeus' currency).

--
To me it seems that the main reason for including the conclusion of an experiment in its summary is so that people don't waste time on results that they don't want.
 

Zpol

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This does not work for people with chronic constipation due to redundant colon and/or Celiac.
I have these issues. I used to walk one hour a day, I'd stop at the library, possibly get an audio book, and continue on to the lake near my house. The lake is beautiful and very peaceful, it was my ''reward" and I walked because I like to, not for the purpose of exercise.
I did not help my digestion in any way. Just saying, I think walking and other moderate exercise is only beneficial to those who are constipated due to lack of exercise.

Edit..
I do still walk though.

Thanks for pointing out the difference of outdoor vs indoor! Especially helpful if you can get to a lake (negative ions or something?). I've decided to do yoga during winter. I do have a treadmill but there's no 'reward' so yea, it's just not the same.
 
Last edited:

tca300

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Messages
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The beneficial effects aren't limited to constipata.

This thread by @Markus reminded me of this:


And this:

- Physical Activity and Hippocampal Sub-Region Structure in Older Adults with Memory Complaints

"Considerable evidence exists in the literature to suggest that regular physical exercise confers reduced risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia [1–3] and has beneficial effects in maintaining cognitive functions in older adults [4, 5]. Further, several randomized trials have documented better cognitive performance after 6 or 12 months of exercise compared with sedentary controls [1]."

"In addition to establishing associations between physical activity (PA) and cognitive function, studies have shown that PA affects regional brain structure."

"A total of 29 non-demented older adults (60–89 years old) with memory complaints were recruited through advertisements, media coverage, and referrals from physicians and families."

"Subjects were instructed to wear [a] monitors for 2-weeks throughout the day to measure levels of activity, including number of steps walked daily as well as time spent walking daily."

"Based on the distribution of the number of steps walked daily, we categorized the subjects into either “lower” or “higher” physical activity groups depend- ing on whether they walked less than or equal to 4000 steps per day (lower PA group; n = 13) or more than 4000 steps per day (higher PA group; n = 13). The median of number of steps walked per day for the study sample was 4009 (range 862–14355). In addition to the average number of steps walked daily, the accelerometer also collected data on average total time spent walking daily, and average total distance walked daily. The latter two measures were highly and significantly correlated with the number of steps walked daily (Spearman correlation coefficients: r = 0.93, 0.92 respectively, both p≤0.0001); we therefore examined only one of these physical activity measures and chose number of steps walked daily as the measure of interest. This choice was based on the fact that pedometers are simple and inexpensive and are more likely to be adopted for clinical and real world applications, including direct use by public [16] even if they are less sensitive to very slow walking [17], as opposed to the relative expense of accelerometers and their associated intensive data management requirements, which limit their use to research purposes [16]."
.
View attachment 10509

"While previous reports have examined the association between physical activity and brain volume [19], few studies have focused in the relationship between cortical thickness and physical activity. A previous report indicated that even in the absence of significant MTL [Microsystems Techmology Laboratories], cranial or brain volume changes over time, greater cortical thinning in MTL sub-regions is observed in older subjects at risk for Alzheimer’s disease [12] and thinner cortical regions may increase susceptibility to subtle pathological changes as incipient Alzheimer’s disease progresses. The finding of this study that greater physical activity is associated with greater thickness in subjects with memory complaints may provide further impetus for research into possible interventions that focus on physical activity to target memory problems in older adults. Furthermore, the current results also point to the utility of MTL structure integrity as a potential biomarker for adequate activity with aging and for examining the effects of an exercise intervention."

"Participants in the study were categorized into two groups, using 4000 steps walked daily as the cut-off, based on the distribution of the observed data. Interestingly, in the long-running Nakanojo Study that includes almost 500 participants aged 65 years and older, results indicated that better mental health is associated with walking more than 4000 steps per day and/or >5 min/day at intensity >3 metabolic equivalents while better physical health is associated with >8000 steps [20]. A recent review that assessed how many steps per day are required for optimal health concluded that healthy, older adults need at least an average of 7100 steps per day [16]. It is noteworthy that this threshold is comparable to the mean steps/day of the higher PA group. Moreover, the same study observed that for older adults with chronic diseases or disability, the recommended number of steps is 4600 steps/day, which is comparable to the cut-off used in the present study. We also note that 4000 steps per day are easily achievable by older adults and correspond to 30–40 minutes of walking. The observed effects of PA on cognitive domains in the current study are consistent with several previous studies [21–23]. In a sample of 93 adults aged 60 and older, it was observed that a higher level of physical functioning (testing included several walking measures) was significantly associated with greater processing speed and better executive functions but was not associated with better memory performance [21]. Our results strengthen the existing evidence linking PA to cognitive performance and, in particular, to processing speed and executive function."

"While the exact mechanism of how physical exercise benefits cortical thickness is uncertain, several possibilities exist. Some studies have suggested that PA can increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and brain. More specifically, a recent investigation observed that among 19 healthy older adults, a 35-min session of physical activity has a significantly larger impact on serum BDNF levels than either cognitive training or mindfulness practice [24]. Physical activity is also thought to increase hippocampal synaptic plasticity either directly via signal transduction mechanisms or indirectly by increasing BDNF levels, which in turn regulate specific signal transduction mechanisms [25]. In addition, exercise may augment the effects of BDNF on synaptic-plasticity, through a positive feedback loop in which it concurrently increases the mRNA levels of both itself and its receptor [26]. Therefore, BDNF up-regulation, strongly evoked by PA, potentiates the protection of neurons from eventual damage and favors neurogenesis and plasticity [27]. Interestingly, a recent systematic review concluded that aerobic exercise was a major source for the enhancement of BDNF-dependent executive functioning [28], consistent with our finding of increased PA and enhanced executive functioning. PA also has been associated with a reduction of plasma amyloid-nondio levels [29, 30], which are associated with a greater risk of cognitive impairment [30, 31]."

"[..]a recently proposed theory, the Adaptive Capacity Model, explores an evolutionary connection between hippocampal structures and exercise [32]. This model suggests that during aging, the brain responds adaptively by diminishing capacity so as to reduce energy costs, leading to age-related regional brain atrophy and associated function, while engaging exercise in late life can adaptively increase capacity, thus reducing the impacts of cognitive aging [32]."
.
@Constatine @Zpol
My great uncle, and recently deceased great grandfather both claimed regular walking saved their marriages. :lol:
 
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This does not work for people with chronic constipation due to redundant colon and/or Celiac.
I have these issues. I used to walk one hour a day, I'd stop at the library, possibly get an audio book, and continue on to the lake near my house. The lake is beautiful and very peaceful, it was my ''reward" and I walked because I like to, not for the purpose of exercise.
I did not help my digestion in any way. Just saying, I think walking and other moderate exercise is only beneficial to those who are constipated due to lack of exercise.

Edit..
I do still walk though.

Thanks for pointing out the difference of outdoor vs indoor! Especially helpful if you can get to a lake (negative ions or something?). I've decided to do yoga during winter. I do have a treadmill but there's no 'reward' so yea, it's just not the same.

how do u know u have a redundant colon? are u eating lactose? i wouldnt consider my problem "solved" until i can freely drink milk, but without a shadow of a doubt, lactose is a big constiaption causer i think if you are hypo
 

Zpol

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how do u know u have a redundant colon? are u eating lactose? i wouldnt consider my problem "solved" until i can freely drink milk, but without a shadow of a doubt, lactose is a big constiaption causer i think if you are hypo

I was diagnosed via a colonoscopy. I don't eat lactose. Ironically, I don't think I have a problem with lactose but I definitely cannot have even trace amounts of casein (A1 nor A2), it causes psoriasis and fibro pain. This is because redundant colon ultimately causes damage to the epithelial layer and also causes the villi to flop over (the villi need to be straight up because the tips are were casein gets properly absorbed). I agree, if I can ever eat dairy again i'd say 'problem solved'.
 

Amazoniac

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This does not work for people with chronic constipation due to redundant colon and/or Celiac.
I have these issues. I used to walk one hour a day, I'd stop at the library, possibly get an audio book, and continue on to the lake near my house. The lake is beautiful and very peaceful, it was my ''reward" and I walked because I like to, not for the purpose of exercise.
I did not help my digestion in any way. Just saying, I think walking and other moderate exercise is only beneficial to those who are constipated due to lack of exercise.

Edit..
I do still walk though.

Thanks for pointing out the difference of outdoor vs indoor! Especially helpful if you can get to a lake (negative ions or something?). I've decided to do yoga during winter. I do have a treadmill but there's no 'reward' so yea, it's just not the same.
Indeed it must be more difficult to notice an effect, but it should still be positive.


Have you tried to combine the usual planar relaxed activity with more demanding such as making the walkings up to the hills (or inclined treadmill), or even sprinting with rests? Sometimes those are needed to make a difference.
 

Zpol

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Indeed it must be more difficult to notice an effect, but it should still be positive.

Dolichocolon revisited: An inborn anatomic variant with redundancies causing constipation and volvulus
"Short walks were advised as exercise."
Have you tried to combine the usual planar relaxed activity with more demanding such as making the walkings up to the hills (or inclined treadmill), or even sprinting with rests? Sometimes those are needed to make a difference.

Yes, "this does not work" was a bit of an overstatement. Been feeling a bit defeated lately. The walk I used to do did have a steep incline which I walked over twice (there and back). Since I moved a few blocks over I don't have the incline anymore but I do get my heart rate up a bit at times and then slow down. I've read rebounding is also helpful and ab work done on an incline board. The former I've tried but I feel it's too intense, the latter I am about to try.

Thanks for the link. I've been having a hella time trying to find anything at all on this condition.
 

Amazoniac

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Thread starter
Joined
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The beneficial effects aren't limited to constipata.

This thread by @Markus reminded me of this:


And this:

- Physical Activity and Hippocampal Sub-Region Structure in Older Adults with Memory Complaints

"Considerable evidence exists in the literature to suggest that regular physical exercise confers reduced risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia [1–3] and has beneficial effects in maintaining cognitive functions in older adults [4, 5]. Further, several randomized trials have documented better cognitive performance after 6 or 12 months of exercise compared with sedentary controls [1]."

"In addition to establishing associations between physical activity (PA) and cognitive function, studies have shown that PA affects regional brain structure."

"A total of 29 non-demented older adults (60–89 years old) with memory complaints were recruited through advertisements, media coverage, and referrals from physicians and families."

"Subjects were instructed to wear [a] monitors for 2-weeks throughout the day to measure levels of activity, including number of steps walked daily as well as time spent walking daily."

"Based on the distribution of the number of steps walked daily, we categorized the subjects into either “lower” or “higher” physical activity groups depend- ing on whether they walked less than or equal to 4000 steps per day (lower PA group; n = 13) or more than 4000 steps per day (higher PA group; n = 13). The median of number of steps walked per day for the study sample was 4009 (range 862–14355). In addition to the average number of steps walked daily, the accelerometer also collected data on average total time spent walking daily, and average total distance walked daily. The latter two measures were highly and significantly correlated with the number of steps walked daily (Spearman correlation coefficients: r = 0.93, 0.92 respectively, both p≤0.0001); we therefore examined only one of these physical activity measures and chose number of steps walked daily as the measure of interest. This choice was based on the fact that pedometers are simple and inexpensive and are more likely to be adopted for clinical and real world applications, including direct use by public [16] even if they are less sensitive to very slow walking [17], as opposed to the relative expense of accelerometers and their associated intensive data management requirements, which limit their use to research purposes [16]."
.
View attachment 10509

"While previous reports have examined the association between physical activity and brain volume [19], few studies have focused in the relationship between cortical thickness and physical activity. A previous report indicated that even in the absence of significant MTL [Microsystems Techmology Laboratories], cranial or brain volume changes over time, greater cortical thinning in MTL sub-regions is observed in older subjects at risk for Alzheimer’s disease [12] and thinner cortical regions may increase susceptibility to subtle pathological changes as incipient Alzheimer’s disease progresses. The finding of this study that greater physical activity is associated with greater thickness in subjects with memory complaints may provide further impetus for research into possible interventions that focus on physical activity to target memory problems in older adults. Furthermore, the current results also point to the utility of MTL structure integrity as a potential biomarker for adequate activity with aging and for examining the effects of an exercise intervention."

"Participants in the study were categorized into two groups, using 4000 steps walked daily as the cut-off, based on the distribution of the observed data. Interestingly, in the long-running Nakanojo Study that includes almost 500 participants aged 65 years and older, results indicated that better mental health is associated with walking more than 4000 steps per day and/or >5 min/day at intensity >3 metabolic equivalents while better physical health is associated with >8000 steps [20]. A recent review that assessed how many steps per day are required for optimal health concluded that healthy, older adults need at least an average of 7100 steps per day [16]. It is noteworthy that this threshold is comparable to the mean steps/day of the higher PA group. Moreover, the same study observed that for older adults with chronic diseases or disability, the recommended number of steps is 4600 steps/day, which is comparable to the cut-off used in the present study. We also note that 4000 steps per day are easily achievable by older adults and correspond to 30–40 minutes of walking. The observed effects of PA on cognitive domains in the current study are consistent with several previous studies [21–23]. In a sample of 93 adults aged 60 and older, it was observed that a higher level of physical functioning (testing included several walking measures) was significantly associated with greater processing speed and better executive functions but was not associated with better memory performance [21]. Our results strengthen the existing evidence linking PA to cognitive performance and, in particular, to processing speed and executive function."

"While the exact mechanism of how physical exercise benefits cortical thickness is uncertain, several possibilities exist. Some studies have suggested that PA can increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and brain. More specifically, a recent investigation observed that among 19 healthy older adults, a 35-min session of physical activity has a significantly larger impact on serum BDNF levels than either cognitive training or mindfulness practice [24]. Physical activity is also thought to increase hippocampal synaptic plasticity either directly via signal transduction mechanisms or indirectly by increasing BDNF levels, which in turn regulate specific signal transduction mechanisms [25]. In addition, exercise may augment the effects of BDNF on synaptic-plasticity, through a positive feedback loop in which it concurrently increases the mRNA levels of both itself and its receptor [26]. Therefore, BDNF up-regulation, strongly evoked by PA, potentiates the protection of neurons from eventual damage and favors neurogenesis and plasticity [27]. Interestingly, a recent systematic review concluded that aerobic exercise was a major source for the enhancement of BDNF-dependent executive functioning [28], consistent with our finding of increased PA and enhanced executive functioning. PA also has been associated with a reduction of plasma amyloid-nondio levels [29, 30], which are associated with a greater risk of cognitive impairment [30, 31]."

"[..]a recently proposed theory, the Adaptive Capacity Model, explores an evolutionary connection between hippocampal structures and exercise [32]. This model suggests that during aging, the brain responds adaptively by diminishing capacity so as to reduce energy costs, leading to age-related regional brain atrophy and associated function, while engaging exercise in late life can adaptively increase capacity, thus reducing the impacts of cognitive aging [32]."
.
@Constatine @Zpol
Thoughts flow better when the body is busy with trivial activity. Solving problems can be stressful if the person feels stuck, and movement works against that, similar to mice having something to bite during stressful times. There's the classic nervous pacing.

It's rare to find people that take into consideration the movement aspect of smoking.

Fried mentioned Mozart, and people often claim that he had ideas for his compositions while playing billiards.
 
Last edited:

Amazoniac

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For people that aren't deriving as much benefit from walking, there are a few things to implement that might increase the benefits:
- Preloading with bicarbonates (like athletes).
- Eating fibrous foods (such as you know what) to prevent absorption of intestinal toxins from any unusual exertion.
- Dressing to sweat: most people put on lighter clothes for exercise, but perhaps it's a good idea to do the opposite. If someone is sedentary, a mild strain can be enough to cause those intestinal toxins to be absorbed and drop the temperature. In these cases little details might make a difference, such as keeping hands warm in the pocket, beanies, scarf, and so on. Keeping the temperature up all times will make it easier for the body. Hyperthermia can be therapeutic. Clothes also come with a sophisticated feature that allows you to unzip or unbotton and remove them in case it becomes too uncomfortable.
- Brisk instead of zombie walking. By zombie walking I mean the typical walking of various workers going to their job or students going to schools, it's a dragged walk. You can even start conversations this way, people tend respond positively because you're communicating their feeling.
- Hydration needs can increase a lot from physical activity: it can be overlooked.
- Concentrating the most demanding activity in the beginning (such as sprints) and the rest being more relaxed.
- Up to the hills.
- Early in the morning (without sunglasses) instead of later in the day.
 
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