Dietary Salt Promotes Cognitive Impairment Through Tau Phosphorylation

Mito

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Abstract
Dietary habits and vascular risk factors promote both Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive impairment caused by vascular factors
1,2,3. Furthermore, accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau, a microtubule-associated protein and a hallmark of Alzheimer’s pathology4, is also linked to vascular cognitive impairment5,6. In mice, a salt-rich diet leads to cognitive dysfunction associated with a nitric oxide deficit in cerebral endothelial cells and cerebral hypoperfusion7. Here we report that dietary salt induces hyperphosphorylation of tau followed by cognitive dysfunction in mice, and that these effects are prevented by restoring endothelial nitric oxide production. The nitric oxide deficiency reduces neuronal calpain nitrosylation and results in enzyme activation, which, in turn, leads to tau phosphorylation by activating cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Salt-induced cognitive impairment is not observed in tau-null mice or in mice treated with anti-tau antibodies, despite persistent cerebral hypoperfusion and neurovascular dysfunction. These findings identify a causal link between dietary salt, endothelial dysfunction and tau pathology, independent of haemodynamic insufficiency. Avoidance of excessive salt intake and maintenance of vascular health may help to stave off the vascular and neurodegenerative pathologies that underlie dementia in the elderly.
 
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Dietary salt promotes neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction through a gut-initiated TH17 response



Abstract
A diet rich in salt is linked to an increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases and dementia, but it remains unclear how dietary salt harms the brain. We report that, in mice, excess dietary salt suppresses resting cerebral blood flow and endothelial function, leading to cognitive impairment. The effect depends on expansion of TH17 cells in the small intestine, resulting in a marked increase in plasma interleukin-17 (IL-17). Circulating IL-17, in turn, promotes endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment by the Rho kinase-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reduced nitric oxide production in cerebral endothelial cells. The findings reveal a new gut-brain axis linking dietary habits to cognitive impairment through a gut-initiated adaptive immune response compromising brain function via circulating IL-17. Thus, the TH17 cell-IL-17 pathway is a putative target to counter the deleterious brain effects induced by dietary salt and other diseases associated with TH17 polarization.


https://www.researchgate.net/public...unction_through_a_gut-initiated_TH17_response



Excerpts:

"..this diet is comparable to the high end of the spectrum of human salt consumption"



"..Consistent with previous reports, HSD induced a nonsignificant trend toward a reduction
in body weight and increased caloric intake
"
^^^
Self-cannibalization for endogenous Wound-water,me very thirsty!




"..To investigate the cerebrovascular effects of HSD, we examined
resting CBF quantitatively using MRI with arterial spin labeling22.
HSD induced a marked reduction in resting CBF both in
cortex (− 28%; P < 0.05; Fig. 1b) and hippocampus (− 25%; P < 0.05;
Supplementary Fig. 1d), which was fully developed at 8 weeks in
cortex. Endothelial dysfunction was also observed in mice fed a
4% HSD
for 12 weeks."

^^^
Even at "normal" intake levels,endothelial dysfunction did set in, just with a slight lag.
Sodium doesnt get fully excreted,but jealously guarded&retained,rare resource after all!
Little by little,people are salted to the gills!




The ability to build a nest (nesting behavior), reflecting activities of daily
living in rodents, is altered in mice fed HSD for 12 weeks, as indicated by a
lower nest score (see Methods) and increased amount of untorn nesting
material (nest score: *P = 0.0267 HSD vs. ND
^^^
The picture and graph is crazy,they dont understand to build a nest anylonger!Thought they were builders?!
 

rei

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Aug 6, 2017
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Dietary Salt Promotes Cognitive Impairment Through Tau Phosphorylation in genetically defect mice.

also

Self-cannibalization for endogenous Wound-water,me very thirsty!

Could also be expressed as: as the hibernating body tries to resume full function, demands on nutrition etc. get higher, so unless these demands are met it might actually be damaging. This is only apparent with severe overdosing, as stated here

..this diet is comparable to the high end of the spectrum of human salt consumption

The high end of human salt consumption consists of sick individuals that have lost sense of taste, and severely overdo salt. A normally functioning human quickly turns disgusted by salt once the body thinks it has enough. Try it! After running for 30 minutes drink a glass of water with a quarter teaspoon of salt, it will be refreshing. Now try it after eating a salty meal, you will spit it out.
 
Last edited:

LucyL

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Oct 21, 2013
Messages
777
Salt to taste, which is Peat's general guideline, means don't purposely restrict sodium, which also has a large range of unhealthy effects. Progesterone and aspirin just to name a couple substances, affect the kinase cascades appropriately. The real danger would be taking a study like this and purposely trying to increase NO while reducing sodium :anguished:
 
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Messages
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Salt to taste, which is Peat's general guideline, means don't purposely restrict sodium, which also has a large range of unhealthy effects. Progesterone and aspirin just to name a couple substances, affect the kinase cascades appropriately. The real danger would be taking a study like this and purposely trying to increase NO while reducing sodium :anguished:


You do not restrict salt.Salt to taste is a helpless meme.
The entire act of "Salting" anything is pure ideology.
Salt for possibly obligatory meat-eaters like Humans,
comes from meat,around 1200mg of NaCl from 4 pounds of it.
Damage by excessive Sodium and Chlorine intake has high amount of scientific backing,
all steps for a lot of cascades are completely elucidated and confirmed.
Sodium also inhibits clearance of amyloid beta,
Salt to taste doesnt work at all,not even for instinct-driven animals!
There is no sensing element that keep counts over total Sodium Body-store,
the light is on,but nobody is at home!!
 
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Nov 21, 2015
Messages
8,385
Salt appetite is as real as any appetite and it is the body’s regulatory mechanism for salt intake. Just as you are thirsty so you drink, you want salt so you salt your foods. Animals in the wild will apparently walk many miles to get extra salt.

Salt has huge benefits and is a very safe supplement.
 
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Messages
2,207
Salt appetite is as real as any appetite and it is the body’s regulatory mechanism for salt intake. Just as you are thirsty so you drink, you want salt so you salt your foods. Animals in the wild will apparently walk many miles to get extra salt.

Salt has huge benefits and is a very safe supplement.

Gotta disagree.Only herbivores have true salt-appetite,Humans who crave "salt" crave metal taste
which is probably meat taste,idiosyncratic dysregulation along imperfect evolutionary development,inherent tendency to salt-taste-addiction is highly possible.
phony and stale craving talk is naive and dangerous and came through ideology,eat what makes you feel good,gateway to comfort eating.


Children will get severely disordered if you give them
what they crave,and it will be Junk-Food a lot of the time,There is no machinery for advanced analysis of foodstuff in us,a lot of people operating under this implicit notion.

Eating what tastes good doesnt work at all,
i had surely similar delusions before,but now it strucks me as insane if one thinks only superficially about it.

Most people here in this forum dont know what they need,thats why they are on-line at raypeatforum in the first place!

Humans arent designed,they became that way.





Salt has Yuge negatives and can give you reliably high inflammation,doubled lipid peroxidation,induction of autoimmunity,


Brain damage by low cerebral bloodflow,changed and slowed down puberty,tau pathology,reduced clearance of Amyloid-


Beta,hypercortisolism,muscle wasting,metabolic acidosis through renal-physiologic bicarbonate-wasting,potassium-wasting,


increased aldosterone toxicity despite lowered measurement-readings,IBD,Colitis,aggravated Asthma,


induction and maintenance odf some of the following,Psoriasis,Acne,Multiple Sclerosis,Parkinsons disease through IL17


signalling which induces reliably NFKB,and much,much more.

:beammeup:extinguishflame
 

Mito

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Thread starter
Joined
Dec 10, 2016
Messages
1,871
“A high-salt diet may negatively affect cognitive function by causing a deficiency of the compound nitric oxide, which is vital for maintaining vascular health in the brain, according to a new study in mice from Weill Cornell Medicine researchers. When nitric oxide levels are too low, chemical changes to the protein tau occur in the brain, contributing to dementia.”

““We thought maybe there was something else going on here,'" Dr. Iadecola said. In their new Nature study, the investigators found that decreased nitric oxide production in blood vessels affects the stability of tau proteins in neurons. Tau provides structure for the scaffolding of neurons. This scaffolding, also called the cytoskeleton, helps to transport materials and nutrients across neurons to support their function and health.”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191023132201.htm



I don’t think the authors have read Peat’s work on nitric oxide:)
 
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1,637
Salt increases CO2, so lowering NO shouldn't cause vasoconstriction.
 

Herbie

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Jun 7, 2016
Messages
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Gotta disagree.Only herbivores have true salt-appetite,Humans who crave "salt" crave metal taste
which is probably meat taste,idiosyncratic dysregulation along imperfect evolutionary development,inherent tendency to salt-taste-addiction is highly possible.
phony and stale craving talk is naive and dangerous and came through ideology,eat what makes you feel good,gateway to comfort eating.


Children will get severely disordered if you give them
what they crave,and it will be Junk-Food a lot of the time,There is no machinery for advanced analysis of foodstuff in us,a lot of people operating under this implicit notion.

Eating what tastes good doesnt work at all,
i had surely similar delusions before,but now it strucks me as insane if one thinks only superficially about it.

Most people here in this forum dont know what they need,thats why they are on-line at raypeatforum in the first place!

Humans arent designed,they became that way.





Salt has Yuge negatives and can give you reliably high inflammation,doubled lipid peroxidation,induction of autoimmunity,


Brain damage by low cerebral bloodflow,changed and slowed down puberty,tau pathology,reduced clearance of Amyloid-


Beta,hypercortisolism,muscle wasting,metabolic acidosis through renal-physiologic bicarbonate-wasting,potassium-wasting,


increased aldosterone toxicity despite lowered measurement-readings,IBD,Colitis,aggravated Asthma,


induction and maintenance odf some of the following,Psoriasis,Acne,Multiple Sclerosis,Parkinsons disease through IL17


signalling which induces reliably NFKB,and much,much more.

:beammeup:extinguishflame


I think people do know what they need but are unware and uneducated on toxic additives in food which makes them unwell like how animal fats have been replaced with seed oils without an real obvious change to the food and vitamins and gums and synthetic vitamin c like when Spain used to provide all the vitamin c extracted from fruits to add to foods before synthetic came along, now Ray said synthetic ascorbic acid produces free radicals.

The other thing clouding the instict is that processed junk is cheap and meat is expensive, where I live meat used to be cheap and plentiful, it will slowly become more expensive and rare thanks to brainwashed vegans and save the world type morons like Bill Gates.
 
Last edited:

redsun

Member
Joined
Dec 17, 2018
Messages
1,872
Gotta disagree.Only herbivores have true salt-appetite,Humans who crave "salt" crave metal taste
which is probably meat taste,idiosyncratic dysregulation along imperfect evolutionary development,inherent tendency to salt-taste-addiction is highly possible.
phony and stale craving talk is naive and dangerous and came through ideology,eat what makes you feel good,gateway to comfort eating.


Children will get severely disordered if you give them
what they crave,and it will be Junk-Food a lot of the time,There is no machinery for advanced analysis of foodstuff in us,a lot of people operating under this implicit notion.

Eating what tastes good doesnt work at all,
i had surely similar delusions before,but now it strucks me as insane if one thinks only superficially about it.

Most people here in this forum dont know what they need,thats why they are on-line at raypeatforum in the first place!

Humans arent designed,they became that way.





Salt has Yuge negatives and can give you reliably high inflammation,doubled lipid peroxidation,induction of autoimmunity,


Brain damage by low cerebral bloodflow,changed and slowed down puberty,tau pathology,reduced clearance of Amyloid-


Beta,hypercortisolism,muscle wasting,metabolic acidosis through renal-physiologic bicarbonate-wasting,potassium-wasting,


increased aldosterone toxicity despite lowered measurement-readings,IBD,Colitis,aggravated Asthma,


induction and maintenance odf some of the following,Psoriasis,Acne,Multiple Sclerosis,Parkinsons disease through IL17


signalling which induces reliably NFKB,and much,much more.

:beammeup:extinguishflame

I think the issue could be the weakened ability to make aldosterone because of lack of B3. When I eat more meat specifically which is the best source of B3 I crave less salt. B3 is heavily used to get to aldosterone

Pregnenolone -> Progesterone -> Corticosterone -> Aldosterone

All three of these steps require B3. Of course there are other nutrients necessary but specifically B3 is used every step from Pregnenolone to Aldosterone. If I have less niacin intake I start craving more salty foods and salt my food more as well. I am trying divided doses of B3 supplementation on top of a B complex I already use and it does seem to reduce my "need" for salt with my meals. Perhaps those with a strong constant craving for salt may benefit from taking B3, seems to help me in that case. And I could argue needing less salt because of B3 is a sign of a better functioning system that no longer needs to rely on obsessive salting to maintain salt balance.

I remember in my days where my health was the worst I was pounding down package ramen with the seasoning pack AND almost another teaspoon of salt on top of it(I could never get enough seemingly), potato chips of all kinds, salting everything I eat, eating lots of pickles because if I didnt I would get hyponatremic symptoms easily. Eating healthier helped this a lot and specifically I am sure it was the increased B3 intake from increasing meat that helped somewhat back then. Clearly I seem to have had an issue making NAD from tryptophan and probably still do now.
 
Last edited:

burtlancast

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Joined
Jan 1, 2013
Messages
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Anders86

Member
Joined
Feb 7, 2017
Messages
355
I think the issue could be the weakened ability to make aldosterone because of lack of B3. When I eat more meat specifically which is the best source of B3 I crave less salt. B3 is heavily used to get to aldosterone

Pregnenolone -> Progesterone -> Corticosterone -> Aldosterone

All three of these steps require B3. Of course there are other nutrients necessary but specifically B3 is used every step from Pregnenolone to Aldosterone. If I have less niacin intake I start craving more salty foods and salt my food more as well. I am trying divided doses of B3 supplementation on top of a B complex I already use and it does seem to reduce my "need" for salt with my meals. Perhaps those with a strong constant craving for salt may benefit from taking B3, seems to help me in that case. And I could argue needing less salt because of B3 is a sign of a better functioning system that no longer needs to rely on obsessive salting to maintain salt balance.

I feel you. If I sense adrenaline B3 or Salt is best solution. Often a Latte containing both:handok:
 
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Messages
2,207
Salt could be a key factor in allergic immune reactions
Atopic dermatitis: Elevated salt concentrations in affected skin


Salt apparently affects allergic immune reactions. A team working with Prof. Christina Zielinski at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has demonstrated in cell cultures that salt leads to the formation of Th2 cells. These immune cells are active in allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis. The team also detected elevated salt concentrations in the skin of patients.

In industrial countries, nearly one in three people are affected by allergies at some point in their lives. One in ten children suffer from atopic dermatitis. T-cells play an important role in immune conditions of this kind. They are a vital aspect of the body's resistance to infections, but, if uncontrolled, can also develop pathological responses and start attacking parts of our bodies or innocuous substances such as allergens.

When such functions occur, Th2 cells, a subgroup of T cells, can cause inflammatory skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis. This involves increased production of the proteins interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 13 (IL-13). It is still unknown what triggers the signalling malfunction.

More Th2 cells under the influence of sodium ions

Table salt, known scientifically as sodium chloride, is essential to the health of humans and animals. In the body it occurs in the form of sodium and chlorine ions. In a recent study, Christina Zielinski, a DZIF-professor at TUM's Institute of Virology, and her team were able to demonstrate that sodium chloride can induce a state in human T cells that causes them to produce increased amounts of the proteins IL-4 and IL-13.

Types of T-cells, which should not cause allergies, can, in the presence of salt, turn into Th2 cells. The changes are reversed when the T cell is again exposed to lower salt levels. "Consequently, ionic signals(^Salt is a transmitter,Salt loading is then doing what,do we surely know.^) do play a role in the generation and control of Th2 cells," says Christina Zielinski.

Highly elevated salt levels in the skin of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis
(^High Salt and Normal Salt increase Skin,muscle,Brain,lymph content of Sodium effectively along the line of time,aging-stress is also associated with increased,not decreased Sodium retention,Osmotically Neutral Sodium Retention.Supraphysiologic intake is the true culprit though.^)
As a medical specialist in the field of dermatology, Zielinski is naturally interested in atopic dermatitis. Her team investigated whether the affected skin regions of atopic dermatitis patients exhibit elevated sodium levels." Measuring sodium concentrations in the tissue is complicated," explains the first author of the study, Julia Matthias. "Dissolved salt in blood can be measured using standard clinical methods. But for the skin, we needed the help of colleagues in nuclear chemistry and physics." They tested the skin samples at the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) at TUM and at the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry at the University of Mainz by means of neutron activation analysis. The sodium levels in the affected skin areas of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis proved to be up to 30 times higher than in healthy skin.

Ideal conditions for bacteria thriving under salty conditions

"The higher sodium levels in the affected skin neatly match another characteristic of atopic dermatitis," says Christina Zielinski. "It has been known for some time that patients with this condition have elevated levels of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus on their skin. These are bacteria, which thrive under salty conditions -- in contrast to other commensal bacteria, which are in fact harmed by salt." Zielinski believes that this insight along with others and the current research results point to a link between salt and the occurrence of atopic dermatitis.

"However, we have not yet been able to show how these large quantities of salt find their way to the skin,"(^Other Fields do know how.Osmotically Neutral Sodium Retention.^) she concedes. "For that reason, we are also unsure of how a low-salt or high-salt diet might be related to the appearance and progression of atopic dermatitis or other allergic conditions." Professor Zielinski and her team hope to answer these and other questions in future interdisciplinary studies.
 
Last edited:
Joined
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Messages
8,385
Salt is a complicated subject.

One reason is that you need a lot of potassium. Many people consuming high salt diets are on processed foods, with tons of PUFA fats, and are low in potassium. Also, magnesium and calcium are needed, such that calcium exceeds phosphorus. And, enough B vitamins as has been pointed out.

With all that, it depends on how much liquid you drink. I think I need more salt because I’m taking the T3, and drinking a lot of liquid. Going by temperatures, salt with the liquid reduces the need for T3 and raises my temperatures and keeps them higher. It is a striking difference.

Dr. Peat has said probably the safest supplements are vitamin E and salt. That does not mean that you can’t overdo it. Vitamin E in high quantities can make the body less able to fight off cancer. Salt in quantity especially without the other alkaline metals can probably do a great deal of damage. No doubt.

I think we have a salt appetite for a reason and that it works. But we also need to eat plenty of the other alkaline metals in good healthy foods.
 
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I believe we do not have a salt appetite,we have appetite for a range of Foods that have Umami - Metal-like taste.

The elephant in the room is: WHY?Why at all? Why Salt loading,the true needed amount is 500mg to 1500mg a day,
yet people consume at least 5x to 10x to 15x the amount.

If you look at the evidence,you find there is nothing,
and Peat is just mistaken and fell for "when low Sodium in Blood,then low Sodium in Body",which is just not true,
and he just doesnt know about "Osmotically neutral Sodium Retention" and that people are already salted to their gills.


Also metabolic Acidosis through Bicarbonate wasting,which then gets juggled with sodium bicarbonate like goofy in
those cartoons.
 

Anders86

Member
Joined
Feb 7, 2017
Messages
355
Salt could be a key factor in allergic immune reactions
Atopic dermatitis: Elevated salt concentrations in affected skin


Salt apparently affects allergic immune reactions. A team working with Prof. Christina Zielinski at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has demonstrated in cell cultures that salt leads to the formation of Th2 cells. These immune cells are active in allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis. The team also detected elevated salt concentrations in the skin of patients.

In industrial countries, nearly one in three people are affected by allergies at some point in their lives. One in ten children suffer from atopic dermatitis. T-cells play an important role in immune conditions of this kind. They are a vital aspect of the body's resistance to infections, but, if uncontrolled, can also develop pathological responses and start attacking parts of our bodies or innocuous substances such as allergens.

When such functions occur, Th2 cells, a subgroup of T cells, can cause inflammatory skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis. This involves increased production of the proteins interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 13 (IL-13). It is still unknown what triggers the signalling malfunction.

More Th2 cells under the influence of sodium ions

Table salt, known scientifically as sodium chloride, is essential to the health of humans and animals. In the body it occurs in the form of sodium and chlorine ions. In a recent study, Christina Zielinski, a DZIF-professor at TUM's Institute of Virology, and her team were able to demonstrate that sodium chloride can induce a state in human T cells that causes them to produce increased amounts of the proteins IL-4 and IL-13.

Types of T-cells, which should not cause allergies, can, in the presence of salt, turn into Th2 cells. The changes are reversed when the T cell is again exposed to lower salt levels. "Consequently, ionic signals(^Salt is a transmitter,Salt loading is then doing what,do we surely know.^) do play a role in the generation and control of Th2 cells," says Christina Zielinski.

Highly elevated salt levels in the skin of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis
(^High Salt and Normal Salt increase Skin,muscle,Brain,lymph content of Sodium effectively along the line of time,aging-stress is also associated with increased,not decreased Sodium retention,Osmotically Neutral Sodium Retention.Supraphysiologic intake is the true culprit though.^)
As a medical specialist in the field of dermatology, Zielinski is naturally interested in atopic dermatitis. Her team investigated whether the affected skin regions of atopic dermatitis patients exhibit elevated sodium levels." Measuring sodium concentrations in the tissue is complicated," explains the first author of the study, Julia Matthias. "Dissolved salt in blood can be measured using standard clinical methods. But for the skin, we needed the help of colleagues in nuclear chemistry and physics." They tested the skin samples at the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) at TUM and at the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry at the University of Mainz by means of neutron activation analysis. The sodium levels in the affected skin areas of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis proved to be up to 30 times higher than in healthy skin.

Ideal conditions for bacteria thriving under salty conditions

"The higher sodium levels in the affected skin neatly match another characteristic of atopic dermatitis," says Christina Zielinski. "It has been known for some time that patients with this condition have elevated levels of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus on their skin. These are bacteria, which thrive under salty conditions -- in contrast to other commensal bacteria, which are in fact harmed by salt." Zielinski believes that this insight along with others and the current research results point to a link between salt and the occurrence of atopic dermatitis.

"However, we have not yet been able to show how these large quantities of salt find their way to the skin,"(^Other Fields do know how.Osmotically Neutral Sodium Retention.^) she concedes. "For that reason, we are also unsure of how a low-salt or high-salt diet might be related to the appearance and progression of atopic dermatitis or other allergic conditions." Professor Zielinski and her team hope to answer these and other questions in future interdisciplinary studies.

Isn`t this activation of the immunesystem? In this society there are allergens everywhere. Lowered salt is depressing immunesystem like Omega 3?
 
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