Dietary Cocoa Reduces Metabolic Endotoxemia And Adipose Tissue Inflammation In High-Fat Fed Mice

raypeatclips

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Didn't see this posted elsewhere, please let me know if I am wrong.

Dietary Cocoa Reduces Metabolic Endotoxemia and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High-Fat Fed Mice

Dietary Cocoa Reduces Metabolic Endotoxemia and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High-Fat Fed Mice
Yeyi Gu,a Shan Yu,b Jong Yung Park,a Kevin Harvatine,c and Joshua D. Lamberta

"In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 wk. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40 – 60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cycloxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia."

Some other interesting points to this study. Also points at high fat diet causing higher endotoxin levels @Salmonamb

"HF diet induced a 1.8-fold increase in plasma endotoxin levels (P < 0.001) compared to LF-fed controls (Fig. 5A). Cocoa supplementation ameliorated this elevation resulting in 40.8% lower (P < 0.001) plasma endotoxin levels than HF-fed mice."

Annoyingly the high fat group were consuming 45% higher calories than the low fat group, so I wonder how much of the negative effects of the high fat diet can be attributed to that, as the mices weight was much higher at the end of the study.


The animals were given "80 mg/g unsweetened cocoa powder" and their weights were between 35-47g. Going with 40 grams as a rough weight they ate 3.2g of cocoa powder a day.

Using the conversion chart from this study:

A simple practice guide for dose conversion between animals and human

80mg/g would be 80,000mg /kg, or 80 grams/kg divided by 12.3 gives us 6,504mg/kg or 6.5g per kg. Which seems quite a lot. Anyone correct or confirm my numbers?
 
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D

danishispsychic

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So why does it give me kidney stones and makes my herpes simplex flair? At this point, I feel I am allergic.
 

Tenacity

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People often say it's the magnesium that is responsible for the lower mortality rate of cocoa consumers, but perhaps it's this instead. I wonder when the benefits begin, or if the effect is linear.

Thanks!
 

raypeatclips

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People often say it's the magnesium that is responsible for the lower mortality rate of cocoa consumers, but perhaps it's this instead. I wonder when the benefits begin, or if the effect is linear.

Thanks!

I think the modern world of "supplement sellers" becomes fixated on what aspect of a food source is the "good bit" so that we can all buy the "good bit" and leave the rest, but I think this is quite a narrow minded view.

For example Peat has said before "coffee is more than just caffeine" and I have said before "liver is more than just vitamin A" I would now add to that list "cocoa is more than just magnesium." There is so many aspects of each of these foods, some of which probably haven't been discovered, or understood fully yet!
 

Lokzo

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I've been having massive dosages of Epicatechin for it's mitochondrial, muscle building purposes for about 3 weeks now. At the same time I have been smashing Cacao Butter too. Feeling very physically fit and leaner.


p.s - Epicatechin is the only oral ingredient that can actually increase Follistatin and reduce Myostatin in humans...
 

Lokzo

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I think the modern world of "supplement sellers" becomes fixated on what aspect of a food source is the "good bit" so that we can all buy the "good bit" and leave the rest, but I think this is quite a narrow minded view.

For example Peat has said before "coffee is more than just caffeine" and I have said before "liver is more than just vitamin A" I would now add to that list "cocoa is more than just magnesium." There is so many aspects of each of these foods, some of which probably haven't been discovered, or understood fully yet!

Excellent points.
 

Waremu

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Chris Masterjohn has done some good work on the subject of Oxalates and I agree with it, from the research I've seen. Basically, Oxalates are usually a problem when the overall diet is very low in calcium and very high in oxalates. If the diet has enough calcium and the other minerals, it should protect from Oxalate foods.
 

rei

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They reference their previous similar study from 4 years ago when talking about the composition of the high fat diet. Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice. - PubMed - NCBI

I was unable to find a description of the diet. So i assume this thread could be renamed "reducing the amount of unsaturated oils in the diet results in remarkable increase in metabolic health"

Due to the design of the study i give no weight to the cocoa aspect, i believe any high-quality food with similar macro composition would work similarly when added to a "High-fat diet".
 

anyfit

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People often say it's the magnesium that is responsible for the lower mortality rate of cocoa consumers, but perhaps it's this instead. I wonder when the benefits begin, or if the effect is linear.

Thanks!

i think the Stearic acid, copper , bromocriptine and a little caffeine also play role, cocoa is just full of great stuff.

Totally. I have really given up on most high oxalate foods.

you can counter the oxalates in cocoa by consuming it with calcium rich foods, even RP mentioned it. the calcium binds to it and neutralizes it.
consuming cacao with some calcium source from time to time is just too good to say no to, so many benefits and barely any negatives and those can be neutralized too!

and dont forget about the taste :rolleyes:
 

raypeatclips

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Chris Masterjohn has done some good work on the subject of Oxalates and I agree with it, from the research I've seen. Basically, Oxalates are usually a problem when the overall diet is very low in calcium and very high in oxalates. If the diet has enough calcium and the other minerals, it should protect from Oxalate foods.

i think the Stearic acid, copper , bromocriptine and a little caffeine also play role, cocoa is just full of great stuff.




you can counter the oxalates in cocoa by consuming it with calcium rich foods, even RP mentioned it. the calcium binds to it and neutralizes it.
consuming cacao with some calcium source from time to time is just too good to say no to, so many benefits and barely any negatives and those can be neutralized too!

and dont forget about the taste :rolleyes:

Thank you both! I was just wondering myself what could protect against oxalates.
 

raypeatclips

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They reference their previous similar study from 4 years ago when talking about the composition of the high fat diet. Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice. - PubMed - NCBI

I was unable to find a description of the diet. So i assume this thread could be renamed "reducing the amount of unsaturated oils in the diet results in remarkable increase in metabolic health"

Due to the design of the study i give no weight to the cocoa aspect, i believe any high-quality food with similar macro composition would work similarly when added to a "High-fat diet".

Did you look at the link to the full article just in the top right of that page you linked? The answers you were wanting were just one click away!

They tell us the diet here:

Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice


You make an interesting point. There seems to be a considerable amount of soybean oil in the low fat mouse's diet too, but much less lard. Lard seems of similar make up to beef fat. Due to this I think the low fat mice in the study had the highest PUFA: Saturated fat ratio in the whole study, due to the majority of their fat intake being from soybean oil, helpfully shown below at 61% PUFA.




So based on this, the high fat diet doesn't look too bad (it could have been worse) I don't think the chocolate would have changed the ratio between saturated/unsaturated fats a whole lot, and the increase in the saturated fat ratio looks negligible, in comparison with the "low fat" mices diet, so I think there may be something to the cocoa study. Also there are countless other studies talking about the benefits of cocoa so I think it could be a good (and delicious) addition to the diet in reasonable amounts.
 

Hans

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Some other interesting points to this study. Also points at high fat diet causing higher endotoxin levels @Salmonamb
Cool study. For some reason I don't seem to receive a notification when you tag me, but luckily I came across it.

The way I understand it is that SFAs cause ROS production in the adipocytes, increasing PPARgamma. The PPARgamma increases the number of fat cells, allowing healthy fat gain. PUFAs don't cause as much ROS production and makes the adipocytes insulin sensitive, allowing fat to stream in, but not multiple the fat cells. So the fat cells become distended and causes inflammation.
SFAs prevent this by allowing fat cell multiplication and preventing fat cell distention.
"Fat mass expansion in obesity occurs via adipocyte hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number) and/or adipocyte hypertrophy (increased size of adipocytes)"

"Cocoa-treated mice had a significantly larger number of smaller adipocytes" and "AA content in AT was positively correlated with mass of the fat depot".

PUFAs do increase intestinal permeability whereas SFA decreases it. SFAs instead absorb the endotoxins and transport it to the liver for detoxification as to not cause any inflammation. Looks like in this case, the cocoa fat increased fecal endotoxin excretion.

It's cool that the cocoa prevented the weight gain caused by the high fat feeding. Maybe the cocoa decreased the fat absorption and increased fat detoxification through the liver. Maybe even increase energy expenditure.

"Based on allometric scaling, the dose of cocoa give to the mice is equivalent to approximately 54 g of unsweetened cocoa powder"

"markers of hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia were significantly improved by cocoa treatment for 18 wks."
 

raypeatclips

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Cool study. For some reason I don't seem to receive a notification when you tag me, but luckily I came across it.

The way I understand it is that SFAs cause ROS production in the adipocytes, increasing PPARgamma. The PPARgamma increases the number of fat cells, allowing healthy fat gain. PUFAs don't cause as much ROS production and makes the adipocytes insulin sensitive, allowing fat to stream in, but not multiple the fat cells. So the fat cells become distended and causes inflammation.
SFAs prevent this by allowing fat cell multiplication and preventing fat cell distention.
"Fat mass expansion in obesity occurs via adipocyte hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number) and/or adipocyte hypertrophy (increased size of adipocytes)"

"Cocoa-treated mice had a significantly larger number of smaller adipocytes" and "AA content in AT was positively correlated with mass of the fat depot".

PUFAs do increase intestinal permeability whereas SFA decreases it. SFAs instead absorb the endotoxins and transport it to the liver for detoxification as to not cause any inflammation. Looks like in this case, the cocoa fat increased fecal endotoxin excretion.

It's cool that the cocoa prevented the weight gain caused by the high fat feeding. Maybe the cocoa decreased the fat absorption and increased fat detoxification through the liver. Maybe even increase energy expenditure.

"Based on allometric scaling, the dose of cocoa give to the mice is equivalent to approximately 54 g of unsweetened cocoa powder"

"markers of hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia were significantly improved by cocoa treatment for 18 wks."

Thought you might find it interesting, glad you came across it in the end! Interesting, thanks.
 

rei

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raypeatclips:Nowadays lard is almost completely (poly)unsaturated, i think RP has touched on this in some form. Only ruminating animals are producing saturated fat even on poor commercial diet.
 
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raypeatclips

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raypeatclips:Nowadays lard is almost completely (poly)unsaturated, i think RP has touched on this in some form. Only ruminating animals are producing saturated fat even on poor commercial diet.

Did you click the link above to view their diets?

Even if this is so, I still think the amounts involved (amount of lard replaced by cocoa) the benefits is more than just a balancing of saturated fats and PUFA. The cocoa group still consumed a large amount of lard.
 

Capt Nirvana

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Totally. I have really given up on most high oxalate foods.
It's been known since the 1940s (probably earlier thanks to Medical Amnesia) that oxalate prevents tooth decay. But at what price? Calcium oxalate is definitely involved in the formation of one of the major kinds of kidney stones.
 

Capt Nirvana

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I think the modern world of "supplement sellers" becomes fixated on what aspect of a food source is the "good bit" so that we can all buy the "good bit" and leave the rest, but I think this is quite a narrow minded view.

For example Peat has said before "coffee is more than just caffeine" and I have said before "liver is more than just vitamin A" I would now add to that list "cocoa is more than just magnesium." There is so many aspects of each of these foods, some of which probably haven't been discovered, or understood fully yet!
Scientists have flawed understanding of the 300-plus chemicals so far discovered in cocoa, including caffeine, theobromine, anandamide, phenylethylamine, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, zinc, iron, yatata, yatata. But supplement marketers are quick to take up the slack by hyping whatever is cheapest for them to extract out of a food or herb. It's well known that consumers get dumbfounded if offered a Yin with a Yang. And Batman has no Robin in the health food industry.
 
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