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Creatine Treatment Promotes Differentiation Of GABA-ergic Neuronal Precursors In Cultured Fetal Rat

Discussion in 'Articles & Scientific Studies' started by paymanz, Jun 9, 2016.

  1. paymanz

    paymanz Member

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    Creatine treatment promotes differentiation of GABA-ergic neuronal precursors in cultured fetal rat spinal cord. - PubMed - NCBI

    Creatine is a substrate of cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinases. Its supplementation augments cellular levels of creatine and phosphocreatine, the rate of ATP resynthesis, and improves the function of the creatine kinase energy shuttle. High cytoplasmatic total creatine levels have been reported to be neuroprotective by inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, creatine has direct antioxidant effects, which may be of importance in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of creatine [5 mM] on survival and differentiation of cultured GABA-immunoreactive (-ir) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-ir rat spinal cord neurons. Furthermore, we addressed the neuroprotective potential of creatine supplementation against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced toxicity. General cell survival and total neuronal cell density were not altered by chronic creatine treatment. We found, however, after chronic creatine and short-term creatine exposure a significantly higher density of GABA-ir neurons hinting to a differentiation-inducing mechanism of creatine. This notion is further supported by a significant higher content of GAD after creatine exposure. Creatine supplementation also exerted a partial, but significant neuroprotection for GABA-ir neurons against 3-NP induced toxicity. Interestingly, chronic creatine treatment did not alter cell density of ChAT-ir neurons but promoted their morphologic differentiation. Cell soma size and number of primary neurites per neuron were increased significantly after creatine supplementation. Taken together, creatine supplementation promoted the differentiation or the survival of GABAergic neurons and resulted in partial neuroprotection against 3-NP induced toxicity. The data suggest that creatine may play a critical role during development of spinal cord neurons.

    Brain creatine functions to attenuate acute stress responses through GABAnergic system in chicks. - PubMed - NCBI

    The involvement of brain creatine in the adaptation to acute stress responses was investigated in chicks. In experiment 1, brain creatine content of chicks exposed to social separation stress was significantly increased compared with control chicks. The effects of i.c.v. injection of creatine (2 mug) on vocalizations, spontaneous activity and plasma corticosterone concentration in chicks under social separation stress were investigated in experiment 2. All measurements were attenuated by the i.c.v. injection of creatine compared with the controls under separation stress. Creatine also significantly decreased the active posture, but increased the motionless eye-opened posture, compared with the control. To clarify the relationship between creatine function and GABA receptors, the i.c.v. co-injection of creatine with picrotoxin, a GABA-A receptor antagonist, or CGP54626, a GABA-B receptor antagonist, was investigated in experiments 3 and 4. The effects of creatine on vocalizations and spontaneous activity were attenuated by co-injection of picrotoxin. In this case, active postures decreased by creatine were recovered by co-injection with picrotoxin. However, these effects were not obtained with CGP54626. The results suggest that central creatine functions within the CNS to attenuate the acute stress response by acting through GABA-A receptors in chicks.
     
  2. ndn

    ndn Member

    Joined:
    Jul 21, 2016
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    Some of you all never cease to remind me of my low iq =p
     
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