Common Food Additive Promotes Colon Cancer In Mice

Discussion in 'Additives' started by Miso, Nov 7, 2016.

  1. Miso

    Miso Member

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    Georgia State University

    Emulsifiers, which are added to most processed foods to aid texture and extend shelf life, can alter intestinal bacteria in a manner that promotes intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, according to a new study.


    The findings, published in the journal Cancer Research, show regular consumption of dietary emulsifiers in mice exacerbated tumor development. The study was led by Drs. Emilie Viennois, Didier Merlin, Andrew T. Gewirtz and Benoit Chassaing, researchers in Georgia State University's Institute for Biomedical Sciences.

    Colorectal cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, was responsible for about 700,000 deaths in 2012. There is increasing awareness that the intestinal microbiota, the vast, diverse population of microorganisms that inhabits the human intestines, play a role in driving colorectal cancer.

    The microbiota is also a key factor in driving Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two most common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is known to promote colon tumorigenesis and gave rise to the term "colitis-associated cancer." Low-grade inflammation, a condition more prevalent than IBD, was shown to be associated with altered gut microbiota composition and metabolic disease and is observed in many cases of colorectal cancer. These recent findings suggest dietary emulsifiers might be partially responsible for this association.

    "The incidence of colorectal cancer has been markedly increasing since the mid-20th century," said Viennois, assistant professor in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences. "A key feature of this disease is the presence of an altered intestinal microbiota that creates a favorable niche for tumorigenesis."

    "The dramatic increase in these diseases has occurred amidst constant human genetics, suggesting a pivotal role for an environmental factor," said Chassaing, assistant professor in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences.

    Previous reports by the Georgia State research team suggested that low-grade inflammation in the intestine is promoted by consumption of dietary emulsifiers, which are detergent-like molecules incorporated into most processed foods that alter the composition of gut microbiota. The addition of emulsifiers to food seems to fit the time frame and had been shown to promote bacterial translocation across epithelial cells. Viennois and Chassaing hypothesized that emulsifiers might affect the gut microbiota in a way that promotes colorectal cancer. They designed experiments in mice to test this possibility.

    In this study, the team fed mice with two very commonly used emulsifiers, polysorbate 80 and carboxymethylcellulose, at doses seeking to model the broad consumption of the numerous emulsifiers that are incorporated into the majority of processed foods. Researchers observed that consuming emulsifiers drastically changed the species composition of the gut microbiota in a manner that made it more pro-inflammatory, creating a niche favoring cancer induction and development. Alterations in bacterial species resulted in bacteria expressing more flagellin and lipopolysaccharide, which activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by the immune system.

    When using a well established model of colorectal cancer, the researchers observed that dietary emulsifier consumption was sufficient to make the animals more susceptible to developing colonic tumors because this created and maintained a pro-inflammatory environment associated with an altered proliferation/apoptosis (cell death) balance. The researchers observed that enhanced tumor development was associated with an altered intestinal microbiota, characterized by an increased pro-inflammatory potential.

    This study demonstrated that emulsifier-induced alterations in the microbiome were necessary and sufficient to drive alterations in intestinal epithelial cells' homeostasis, which is thought to govern tumor development. The effects of consuming emulsifiers were eliminated in mice devoid of microbiota (germ-free mice), and transplanting microbiota from emulsifier-treated mice to germ-free mice was sufficient to transfer alterations in intestinal epithelial cells' homeostasis, suggesting a central role played by the microbiota in tumor development.

    Overall, these findings support the concept that agitating host-microbiota interactions to cause low-grade gut inflammation can promote colon carcinogenesis. The team is now investigating which microbiota members are triggering this detrimental effect, as well as the mechanism of altered microbiota-induced cancer promotion.


    -This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America and the Department of Veterans Affairs
     
  2. Amazoniac

    Amazoniac Member

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  3. lollipop

    lollipop Guest

  4. shepherdgirl

    shepherdgirl Member

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    Does anyone have an alternate ingredient for fizzy baths?
     
  5. ecstatichamster

    ecstatichamster Member

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    Dietary emulsifier-induced low-grade inflammation promotes colon carcinogenesis | Cancer Research

    Study is here

    The increased risks conferred by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) gave rise to the term "colitis-associated cancer" and the concept that inflammation promotes colon tumorigenesis. A condition more common than IBD is low-grade inflammation, which correlates with altered gut microbiota composition and metabolic syndrome, both present in many cases of CRC. Recent findings suggest that low-grade inflammation in the intestine is promoted by consumption of dietary emulsifiers, a ubiquitous component of processed foods which alter the composition of gut microbiota. Here, we demonstrate in a pre-clinical model of colitis-induced CRC that regular consumption of dietary emulsifiers carboxymethylcellulose or polysorbate-80 exacerbated tumor development. Enhanced tumor development was associated with an altered microbiota metagenome characterized by elevated levels of lipopolysaccharide and flagellin. We found that emulsifier-induced alterations in the microbiome were necessary and sufficient to drive alterations in major proliferation and apoptosis signaling pathways thought to govern tumor development. Overall, our findings support the concept that perturbations in host-microbiota interactions that cause low-grade gut inflammation can promote colon carcinogenesis.
     
  6. Amazoniac

    Amazoniac Member

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    Malic Acid Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Engineering of Pyruvate Carboxylation, Oxaloacetate Reduction, and Malate Export
    "Enantiomerically pure l-malic acid (e.g., for production of pharmaceuticals) is produced from fumarate (synthesized from maleic anhydride) by enantioselective hydration with fumarase, using either immobilized cells or isolated enzyme (6, 19). Increasing oil prices, concerns about climate change, and advances in the field of metabolic engineering have fueled renewed interest in the production of organic acids by microbial fermentation (20). In 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy included a group of 1,4-dicarboxylic acids, consisting of succinic, fumaric, and malic acids, in the top 12 most interesting chemical building blocks that can be derived from biomass (61).

    In 1924, malic acid was identified as a product of yeast fermentation (7). Since then, malic acid production has been observed for a wide range of microorganisms. Fermentative production of malic acid has been most successfully demonstrated with Aspergillus flavus, achieving 63% of the maximum theoretical yield of malic acid on glucose at high production rates and titers (4). Since its potential aflatoxin production disqualified A. flavus as a producer of food-grade chemicals (16), malic acid production was studied with other organisms, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Table (Table1).1). The highest reported malic acid concentration obtained with S. cerevisiae thus far is 12 g liter−1, which was achieved by overexpression of the cytosolic isoenzyme of malate dehydrogenase (Mdh2p) (41). Recently, another yeast, a natural isolate of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, was shown to produce up to 75 g liter−1 of malic acid in a complex medium containing 300 g liter−1 glucose (48)."
    (((
     
  7. charlie

    charlie The Law & Order Admin

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  8. shepherdgirl

    shepherdgirl Member

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    Thanks @Amazoniac - sorry if this question is a bit dense, but are you implying that malic acid would perhaps be a good substitute for citric acid?
     
  9. Amazoniac

    Amazoniac Member

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    This is what I meant. And so if I consume something as simple as magnesium malate, imagine the possibilities of contamination from that alone.
     
  10. michael94

    michael94 Member

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  11. shepherdgirl

    shepherdgirl Member

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    @Amazoniac
    Yes, and i guess that goes for every ingredient in a box of cookies or whatever.

    @michael94 - what bothers me is the potential mercury contamination.
     
  12. Amazoniac

    Amazoniac Member

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    Dear bilechemist, sounds like a campaign to lower the standards for contamination. It grows on onions. :nailbiting:
     
  13. Amazoniac

    Amazoniac Member

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    Industrial lactase production might have similar problems:

    Current trends of β-galactosidase application in food techmology
    "Although the most studied β-galactosidase is the one produced by Escherichia coli, possible toxic factors associated with coliforms make it unlikely that crude isolates of this enzyme will be permitted in food processes [5]. Therefore, β-galactosidases used in industrial scale for the production of milk and dairy products are isolated from microorganisms with GRAS status (generally recognized as safe) [do not confuse with 'Georgi Recognized As Safe']. Yeast (mainly from K. lactis and K. fragilis) and fungal (mainly from A. niger and A. oryzae) enzymes have the greatest commercial significance [15]."​

    A. what??? A nigga??? I can't believe this is real. So now my people are parasites in the world?? Are they suggesting that we need to do the hard work, then be killed just to serve the "superiors"? What's the deal with this exploitation, this enslavation based on discrimination due to skin coloration?

    Anyway, there are allergy reports available. Now pass me the ******* lactase.
     
  14. meatbag

    meatbag Member

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    yeah you can use vinegar, I just did a vinegar, baking soda, epsom salt the other day; it's great :)
     
  15. shepherdgirl

    shepherdgirl Member

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    Thanks, I think I'll try it, though I imagine I'll be smelling like a pickle afterward...
     
  16. shepherdgirl

    shepherdgirl Member

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    @meatbag
    Tried the vinegar & Bak soda & epsom salt bath yesterday. It was very nice, and the vinegar smell was not very strong and went away quickly. It was not as fizzy as the citric acid baths I have made (about 1c each Bak soda & citric acid). If you are able to make a pretty fizzy vinegar bath, how much of the ingredients do you add? Or is there usually only a small amount of fizz?
     
  17. meatbag

    meatbag Member

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    Nice, yeah frankly it didn't stay fizzy for very long, I think this may be because the vinegar is 5% acetic acid where as the citric acid is straight acid and therefore its likely that its easy to over use the baking soda in the reaction. They sell commercial volume of both baking soda (which I have 2 huge bags of) and vinegar at costco so I'll play around with it.

    NaHCO3+CH3COOH --> CO2(g)+H2O+CH3COO(Na)

    So if 1:1 ratio Baking Soda to Acetic Acid and using 200g Baking Soda and assuming 5% soln Vinegar, then (200/0.05)=4,000 mL Vinegar need for 200g Baking Soda

    I'm not sure how much CO2 would be optimal though
     
  18. shepherdgirl

    shepherdgirl Member

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    Thanks @meatbag
    yeah, I agree citric acid is much stronger than 5% vinegar - Ooh, 4000ml vinegar is around a gallon per bath!
    I haven't tried these, but there is something called vinegar concentrate, also Vinegar powders. I don't know what strengths they come in or anything, just a thought.
     
  19. meatbag

    meatbag Member

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    yeah, I mean it all is produced from fermentation but I guess if a person had issues with the citric acid they could try the vinegar. I think the vinegar might still be cheaper but I'm not sure. Yeah it is a lot of vinegar; I think my calculation is right though :confused:

    What do you think @whit ? I think you had tried this before
     
  20. shepherdgirl

    shepherdgirl Member

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    My understanding is that most citric acid is high in mercury, that's the reason I am looking for an alternative. I think there is some primo, expensivo CA that could be better though.
     
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