Clove Oil (eugenol) Inhibited 97.3% Lipid Peroxidation And Decreases TGF‐β1 Expression

md_a

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Expression of TGF‐β1 was increased significantly in the diabetic control group. However, eugenol treatment decreases this increased expression.

Results suggest that treatment with eugenol involved amelioration of diabetic nephropathy by decreasing TGF‐β1 expression.

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Clove oil inhibited 97.3% lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 15 μg/mL concentration. However, under the same conditions, the standard antioxidant compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and trolox demonstrated inhibition of 95.4, 99.7, 84.6 and 95.6% on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration, respectively. In addition, clove oil had an effective DPPH scavenging, ABTS+ scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities.

Antioxidant activity of clove oil – A powerful antioxidant source - ScienceDirect


Losartan may lead to protection of lung fibrosis through other molecular mechanisms such as downregulation of TGF-β1.


Several viral proteins have been reported to modulate TGF-ß1 signaling, which could induce the proliferation of fibroblasts [25]. Pang et al [27] found higher serum concentrations of TGF-ß1 in SARS patients compared to controls for all clinical courses, including initial, peak, remission, and recovery stages [26,27]. During shortterm follow-up, persistent ground glass opacities, reticular opacities, and pathologic fi ndings of fi brosis have been found in some SARS survivors [28,29]. ...

... Willis et al [30] pointed out that TGF-ß1 was necessary but not sufficient to induce the formation of pulmonary fibrosis [30]. In our study, TGF-ß1 levels increased significantly and remained high after treatment in the severe group, coinciding with reports of patients with SARS-CoV infection [23,26]. This phenomenon could well be explained by the existence of imminent pulmonary fibrosis. ...

https://www.researchgate.net/public...dulates_Transforming_Growth_Factor-_Signaling
 

md_a

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Eugenol: a dual inhibitor of platelet-activating factor and arachidonic acid metabolism.
Saeed SA1, Simjee RU, Shamim G, Gilani AH.
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Abstract
Eugenol is an active principal and responsible for several pharmacological activities of clove oil. We studied the effects of eugenol on human platelet aggregation, arachidonic acid (AA) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) metabolism and in vivo effects on AA and PAF-induced shock in rabbits. Eugenol strongly inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation with lesser effect against AA and collegen. The IC(50) values were against AA: 31 ± 0.5; collagen: 64 ± 0.7 and PAF 7 ± 0.2 μM (n=9) respectively. In addition, eugenol stimulated PAF-acetylhydrolase activity suggesting that inhibition of PAF could be due to its inactivation to lyso-PAF. Pretreatment of rabbits with eugenol (50-100 mg/kg) prevented the lethal effects of intravenous PAF (11 μgg/kg) or AA (2 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent fashion. The protective effects of eugenol in the rabbits, however, were more pronounced against PAF-induced mortality (100% protection). In addition, eugenol also inhibited AA metabolism via cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways in human platelets. Both the production of thromboxane-A(2) and 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid was inhibited by eugenol in a concentration-related manner (30-120 μM). In vivo, eugenol (50-100 mg/kg; i.p.) inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (P < 0.001). In this test, eugenol was 5 times more potent than aspirin. These results provide evidence that eugenol acts as a dual antagonist of AA and PAF.

Eugenol: a dual inhibitor of platelet-activating factor and arachidonic acid metabolism. - PubMed - NCBI
 
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