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Charles E. de M. Sajous - The internal secretions and the principles of medicine

Diokine

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Quite honestly these volumes and the information contained within changed my life. Although it's dated, the observations and deductions laid out by the author and his colleagues are - in my opinion - of the highest class of medical science available. Anesthesiology text books have nothing on these glorious twin columns of content.

//

How does digestion work - chemically?

What is the relationship between the adrenal system and vascular system?

How does the nervous system interact with these?

What is the relationship of the adrenal system to immune function?

How do the lungs work?

What is blood doing?

///


It will take significant time to digest this work, but the knowledge gained by doing so will be invaluable towards gaining a competent frame of understanding physiology.

The Internal Secretions and the Principles of Medicine: Biology; pharmacology; pathogenesis; practice; volume 1

The Internal Secretions and the Principles of Medicine: Biology; pharmacology; pathogenesis; practice; volume 2
 
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cjm

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bookmarked!
 

Diokine

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Disturbance of the functions of the adrenal system by lesions of their nerves seriously hampers the intestinal immuniz ing process. Onuf and Collins refer as follows to the disturb ances that result from extirpation of the stellate ganglion in cats : “ They consisted of diarrhæa and putrefaction of the fæces. The fæcal matter was semiconsistent, of yellow or dark grayish -brown color, and of exceedingly foul odor. This putre faction of the fæces was observed in two of the three animals from which we removed the stellate ganglion . In the third cat they were not noted ; but it should be added that this cat was killed before a time corresponding to that which had elapsed antecedent to the occurrence of putrefaction in the first two cats. The putrefactive symptoms made their appearance as late as two or three months after the operation , and it was noted that the digestive disturbances had a tendency to in crease and persisted until the death of the animals, three and four and one-half months, respectively, after the operation. In one instance the autopsy revealed marked anæmia of the in testines.”
 

yerrag

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How do the lungs work?

I've read that the lungs are also used to detox, but what this means is not elaborated upon. There are always black holes in medicine. High cholestol bad, but no mention of low cholesterol. High bp bad, no mention of low bp. High blood sugar bad, zero mention on low blood sugar. It's like CNN writes medical paraphernalia.

Do the mucus we excrete come from the detox of internal wastes through the lungs? What wastes are these? Are they metabolic wastes, or are they wastes from the immune system interaction with pathogens? It's important to know because the assumption is that mucus excretions are due to toxins and pathogens from an external source. But what if they're coming also from an internal source? If we get respiratory ailments, would it necessarily then have to be due to an external stimulus, or should we consider the source to be internal?

Perhaps all along there is a narrative at play all along to strengthen in us the belief that pathogenic sickness is all due to infection, in order to pin us to the germ theory of Pasteur, and to seeking answers in antibiotics and the inevitability of harmful side effects.

Perhaps an old book such as this would give us answers that are free from the heavy hand of commercial interests.
 

yerrag

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Mar 29, 2016
Messages
9,164
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Manila
Quite honestly these volumes and the information contained within changed my life. Although it's dated, the observations and deductions laid out by the author and his colleagues are - in my opinion - of the highest class of medical science available. Anesthesiology text books have nothing on these glorious twin columns of content.

//

How does digestion work - chemically?

What is the relationship between the adrenal system and vascular system?

How does the nervous system interact with these?

What is the relationship of the adrenal system to immune function?

How do the lungs work?

What is blood doing?

///


It will take significant time to digest this work, but the knowledge gained by doing so will be invaluable towards gaining a competent frame of understanding physiology.

The Internal Secretions and the Principles of Medicine: Biology; pharmacology; pathogenesis; practice; volume 1

The Internal Secretions and the Principles of Medicine: Biology; pharmacology; pathogenesis; practice; volume 2
Were you able to download volume 2? I couldn't find it.
 

Diokine

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Since they didn't have access to exacting analytical chemistry, the authors were unaware of epinepherine, cortisol, or the gluco/mineralcorticoids. They examined the adrenal system functionally, and used the term adrenoxidase to refer to a substance secreted from the adrenals, which combines with oxygen in the lungs in a sort of ferment. The book also describes the action of the thyroparathyroid secretions and how they combine with these ferment products in the lungs. So the concept here being that the lungs are the site of a combining of these compounds.

The book also contains explanations of products of autointoxication, especially from a compromised gut, and how secretions from the thyroparaythyroid system work as an antiseptic factor in the blood. They term these compounds opsonins, and explain how bacilli and other albuminoid toxins are destroyed in the presence of iodothyrin compounds. Later explanations describe secretions and ferments from the spleen and pancreas work to catalyse phagocytosis.

Were you able to download volume 2? I couldn't find it.

I had no problem downloading it - click on the link for volume 2 and select "download pdf."
 
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Diokine

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p309
INTESTINAL IMMUNIZING FUNCTIONS .—The gastric juice is not only concerned with digestion , but it is likewise a powerful antiseptic. Howell refers to this property in the following words: “ One of the interesting facts about this secretion is the way in which it withstands putrefaction. It may be kept for a long time, for months even , without becoming putrid and with very little change, if any, in its digestive action or in its total acidity. This fact shows that the juice possesses anti septic properties, and it is usually supposed that the presence of the free acid accounts for this quality.” This might serve as evidence that beyond the pylorus further protection of this sort is unnecessary ; but greater is the care with which Nature protects her organic creations. Every structural cell in any way exposed seems to be surrounded not only with prophylactic weapons , but also with second and even third lines of defense to cope with what the first line may have failed to disarm . Removal of the stomach in animals has been followed with return to normal health ; it seems plausible that the intestinal tract should also be supplied with means for the protection of its organs .
 

Diokine

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p302
Another feature requiring our attention is the formation of the gastric secretion. In the blood -plasma we have sodium and potassium chlorides; in the secretion of the stomach these represent the most important and abundant salts, and constitute the source of the hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice, according to prevailing views. Has the oxidizing substance of the plasma any influence upon the formation of this acid? The marked affinity of chlorine for hydrogen seems able to fill the want. It takes it up whether the gas be free or in vulnerable combination extra corpore; it doubtless does the same in the gastric structures.

But here conditions are especially well adapted for such a reaction, if we analyze the question with the aid of thermochemistry. Equal volumes of chlorine and hydrogen can only be kept in an absolutely dark place ; diffuse light causes them to slowly unite, while a bright light - sun light, for instance - brings on such an instantaneous combination of the two elementary bodies that the flask containing them flies into pieces. The fact that this may also be brought on with magnesium light which, as is the case with sunlight, is rich in chemical rays, and indicates that we are dealing with a process in which heat plays a predominant part. Precisely as the sun sends radiations which the earth transforms into heat, so does it, in the experiment mentioned, send radiations which the combined chlorine and hydrogen transform into heat; the mixture absorbs the undulations of the ether and transforms them into molecular energy, i.e., heat.

But a multitude of familiar every-day phenomena prove that increased molecular energy, or heat, may be procured without light-rays, etc.; the mere rubbing of a match against a dry surface will cause it to light, for instance. That this occurs without in the least involving the need of a chemical body on the substance against which the match is rubbed to start the reaction indicates that friction causes increased vibratory activity in the ingredients of the match- tip, and, these only combining when a given temperature is reached, heat must obviously be accepted as the causative factor of the process. Now, a very significant feature in connection with the formation of the gastric hydrochloric acid is the fact that the combination temperature, when an immediate reaction is obtained between chlorine and hydrogen, is 39.5 ° C. (103.1 ° F.), while that of the gastric cavity is about 38 ° C. (100.4 ° F.).

The fact that the walls of the stomach , the seat of the blood- flow, must show a higher temperature than this ( at least 2 degrees, that of the liver being 106 degrees ) pointedly suggests that the formation of hydrochloric acid only occurs when the stomach is brought up to the required temperature. Under these conditions, the formation of hydrochloric acid would be as follows: The volume of blood circulating in the gastric mucosa being increased by vasodilation of its arterioles under the auspices of the vagus, the oxidizing plasma, by enhancing metabolism, raises the temperature of the stomach at least the 1.5 ° C. required to render the formation of hydrochloric acid possible. The acid would be formed when needed: a feature quite in accord with experimental data. The parietal cells of the glands, which are the seats of its formation, are only active during digestion, and then increase in size; they continue in this condition as long as the stomach contains food, and then return to their normal size. The following lines of Howell's also tend to indicate that my conception of the process may be the right one: “The chemistry of the production of free HCl also remains undetermined. No free acid occurs in the blood or the lymph, and it follows, therefore, that it is manufactured in the secreting cells. It is quite evident, too, that the source of the acid is the neutral chlorides of the blood ; these are in some way decomposed, the chlorine uniting with hydrogen to form HCl, which is turned out upon the free surface of the stomach , while the base remains behind and probably passes back into the blood.”

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by; volume of free chloride in blood plasma (quantity and frequency of urination, controlled by kidneys,) temperature of gastric mucosa (volume of arterial blood admitted, quantity of functional heat generating adrenoxidase present in arterial blood, functional heat generation regulated by sensitivity of phosphorus containing cell structures sensitized by thyroparathyroid secretions.) Lack of functional adrenoxidase ferment would tend towards hyperemia of the stomach (too great a quantity of blood) which would lead to bloating and reduced digestive potency.

This suggests that increasing the temperature of the stomach after a meal (through warm beverages or water, drank at around 150° F or 65° C) may be an effective strategy for increasing digestive potency.
 

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Vesi

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In archive:
 

Blossom

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Thank you @Diokine for sharing this treasure!
 

yerrag

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Since they didn't have access to exacting analytical chemistry, the authors were unaware of epinepherine, cortisol, or the gluco/mineralcorticoids. They examined the adrenal system functionally, and used the term adrenoxidase to refer to a substance secreted from the adrenals, which combines with oxygen in the lungs in a sort of ferment. The book also describes the action of the thyroparathyroid secretions and how they combine with these ferment products in the lungs. So the concept here being that the lungs are the site of a combining of these compounds.

The book also contains explanations of products of autointoxication, especially from a compromised gut, and how secretions from the thyroparaythyroid system work as an antiseptic factor in the blood. They term these compounds opsonins, and explain how bacilli and other albuminoid toxins are destroyed in the presence of iodothyrin compounds. Later explanations describe secretions and ferments from the spleen and pancreas work to catalyse phagocytosis.



I had no problem downloading it - click on the link for volume 2 and select "download pdf."
The Internal Secretions and the Principles of Medicine: Biology; pharmacology; pathogenesis; practice does not work.

This one does:

 

Diokine

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@Vesi

Thank you for the links!

@yerrag

That's strange, I have no problems downloading from that link. The link you provided works too, it looks like it's the first edition (published 1903) and has most of the same content.

@LLight

They describe thyroid secretions as sensitizing cells to the actions of the adrenal ferment. The explanation for this sensitization is based off of the interaction of iodine and phosphorus, phosphorus being contained in large amounts in nerves and the cell nucleus. A more detailed explanation would include a description of mitochondria and ATP, with energy being stored in high energy phosphate bonds in some way. The nature of the delivery of energy to cells from these high energy phosphate bonds is a little confusing and is not well defined.


Iodine phosphorus reaction video
 

Diokine

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In cases of suprarenal hemorrhage, as we have seen, two entirely distinct forms of this condition prevail. The first of these occurs when, after a destructive disease, the vestige of medulla left suddenly ceases to secrete enough active principle to continue the physiological functions over which the adrenals preside. The second form is that due to general intoxication. The symptoms observed in these cases include the following, which may be considered as standard signs:



(1) Extreme weakness due to gradual decline of muscular power;

(2) Violent abdominal pain;

(3) Great reduction of vascular pressure;

(4) Subnormal temperature;

(5) Liquid stools;

(6) Scanty urine or anuria;

(7) Syncope or convulsions the whole ending in death in from 20 minutes to 3 days.



The sudden annihilation of suprarenal functions obviously involves cessation of secretion. We have seen that the latter maintains the tone of the vascular muscles; the first effect produced, therefore, is suddenly to relax the entire vascular system, as shown by the marked reduction of vascular pressure.

As a consequence, the great central trunks the aorta, the vena cava, etc. become, by reason of their size and their situation, the main centers of engorgement: an assertion not only demonstrable by clinical signs, but indirectly also by the experiments of Oliver and Schafer, who found, by plethysmographic observations upon the limbs and spleen, that injections of suprarenal extract produced great vascular constriction chiefly in the splanchnic area.

That absence of suprarenal secretion in the organism should produce the opposite result in the same region is obvious. This central engorgement of suprarenal origin greatly accentuated through the fact that "vessels supplied with a muscular coat and capillaries are antagonistic in contraction and dilation" appears to us to be far reaching in its application. Indeed, if the phenomena observed in Asiatic cholera, arsenic poisoning, and other kindred conditions are recalled, the truth of this assertion will appear.

As a result of the central accumulation of blood, the extremities and peripheral tissues, more or less depleted of theirs, are cold; the muscles, also deprived of the greater part of their blood, lose their power; the tension upon the abdominal vessels and neighboring structures, including the unusually rich nervous net-works, produces the intense abdominal pain; engorgement of the intestinal vessels gives rise to copious diarrhea, which by causing reduction of liquids tends to reduce the renal secretion and sometimes to cause anuria. The depletion of the cerebral vessels accounts for the syncope, and the auto-intoxication, through accumulation of waste-products, for the convulsions. All the symptoms of this terrible disease thus seem to be accounted for and, we believe, for the first time. They are precisely those that follow removal of both adrenals.
 

Diokine

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Before proceeding further, however, reference must be made to the connection between bacteria and the normal liver. I emphasize “normal” here, because I can thus simultaneously lay stress upon a feature which plays a predominating role in disease: i.e., the fact that anatomically, as far as bacteria go, there is no direct normal connection between the digestive system and this organ. The liver, in fact, is essentially a physiological organ in the sense that it is mainly intended to rid the system of waste -products and to economize others that may again prove useful, by preparing them for reabsorption in the intestine. We have seen that the venules of the villi allow iron pigment leucocytes to enter the mesenteric veins which carry their blood to the portal. A depraved condition of all the digestive structures — such as that induced by alcoholism, for instance — can so lower the functional activity of these structures as to cause these venules to lose their normal turgescence and afford passage to bacteria, alcohol in large doses being known to impair metabolism. The intestinal venules under these circumstances, surrounded by weakened protective structures, can well give passage to Adami's cirrhosis bacillus, for instance, or any other capable of coping with what prophylactic conditions may still prevail.

“The portal vein can transport to the liver morbid germs from the intestinal surface,” says Labadie - Lagrave. “One of the best established pathogenic connections of this kind is the influence exerted upon the development of hepatitis by dysentery; although this relationship is not constant, all observers have noted it. Phlebitis starting from an ulcerated area and directed toward a hepatic focus has also been observed. When the primary portal structures are normal, transmission of the putrid material may occur through the lymphatics. While this fact seems admissible, it has not been verified.”

Again, pathological conditions of the stomach, pancreas, or spleen may supply the portal vein with pathogenic elements. In the normal subject, however, the liver tissues per se are totally isolated anatomically from any of the structures that come into contact with exogenous bacteria, precisely as they are in other organs: the muscles, the heart, etc. That its blood - stream affords protection from disease is undoubted, however, judging from the leucocytes that are constantly entering the organ, and the perivascular lymphatic channels. That the portal vein is also an important field for the splitting of toxalbumins and their reduction to harmless bodies we shall also see. But it seems quite clear that the liver itself is not primarily a germ -killing organ, and that its attributes are essentially chemical. This removes the hepatic cell still further from the functions now attributed to it, and suggests that the oxidizing substance in the lobular blood vessels may be the main source of the liver's functional activity.
 

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