Cascara Sagrada/Emodin Beneficial For COVID-19

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However compounds like emodin that inhibit SARS entry, apparently by binding ACE2, might also have functions at several different human protein binding sites. The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is again argued to be a convenient model pharmacophore perhaps representing an ensemble of targets, and it is noted that it occurs both in lung and alimentary tract. Perhaps it benefits the virus to block an inflammatory response by inhibiting the dehydrogenase, but a fairly complex web involves several possible targets.


COVID-19 Coronavirus spike protein analysis for synthetic vaccines, a peptidomimetic antagonist, and therapeutic drugs, and analysis of a proposed achilles’ heel conserved region to minimize probability of escape mutations and drug resistance - ScienceDirect


emodin has been found to inhibit SARS coronavirus entry [59,60], as also so have other compounds some of which have emodin-like features [3,61]. Similar molecules, and importantly emodin itself, are also in-hibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, an example of a steroid binding enzyme [62]. It is normally anchored within the endo-plasmic reticulum through an N-terminal transmembrane domain. Its involvement as a protein target is here based on a chemical justification. A biological justification might be that this enzyme is involved in the inflammation response which a coronavirus might also benefit by inhibiting. If so, the goal is not, of course, to help the virus by inhibiting at the same target which it would also gain by inhibiting, but rather to inhibit protein targets more crucial to it, i.e. for cell entry and possibly replication which are even more crucial to the virus. Some inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 might even be a desirable


:hattip



(*edit) Anti -SARS-CoV-2 and Anti-cancer Effects of Emodin

Abstract

Abstracts
The SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19), whose spread started in the late December in 2019 in China, is the main concern in the world today. Potential anti-coronavirus targets can be categorized into two classes depending on the target, one is operating on the host immune system or human cells, and the other is on coronavirus itself. Anthraquinones are generally extracted from the Polygonaceae family, and have many beneficiary characteristics such as being antibacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes. Emodin anthraquinones represent an important role in human health and have golden healthful features making them a drug to cure many illnesses. Emodin is known as an effective agent to obstruct the interaction of the S protein of SARS-CoV and the host ACE2 (Angiotensin converting enzyme 2) and the infection caused by the retrovirus. In addition, the outbreak of cancer in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is more than it among the general population. Therefore, the present research is going to outline and highlight the anti SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic strategies of emodin and the anti-cancer charactersitics of this drug.


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Abstract
Recently, the novel life‐threatening coronavirus infection (COVID‐19) was reported at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China, and spread throughout the world in little time. The effective antiviral activities of natural products have been proved in different studies. In this review, regarding the effective herbal treatments on other coronavirus infections, promising natural products for COVID‐19 treatment are suggested. An extensive search in Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, ISI, and Scopus was done with search words include coronavirus, COVID‐19, SARS, MERS, natural product, herb, plant, and extract. The consumption of herbal medicine such as Allium sativum, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Echinacea spp. Hypericum perforatum, and Glycyrrhiza glabra, Scutellaria baicalensis can improve the immune response. It seems that different types of terpenoids have promising effects in viral replication inhibition and could be introduced for future studies. Additionally, some alkaloid structures such as homoharringtonine, lycorine, and emetine have strong anti‐coronavirus effects. Natural products can inhibit different coronavirus targets such as S protein (emodin, baicalin) and viral enzymes replication such as 3CLpro (Iguesterin), PLpro (Cryptotanshinone), helicase (Silvestrol), and RdRp (Sotetsuflavone). Based on previous studies, natural products can be introduced as preventive and therapeutic agents in the fight against coronavirus.






Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interaction - PubMed

Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interaction

Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS-CoV spike (S) protein, a type I membrane-bound protein, is essential for the viral attachment to the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). By screening 312 controlled Chinese medicinal herbs supervised by Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy at Taiwan, we identified that three widely used Chinese medicinal herbs of the family Polygonaceae inhibited the interaction of SARS-CoV S protein and ACE2. The IC(50) values for Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (the root tubers of Rheum officinale Baill.), Radix Polygoni multiflori (the root tubers of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.), and Caulis Polygoni multiflori (the vines of P. multiflorum Thunb.) ranged from 1 to 10 microg/ml. Emodin, an anthraquinone compound derived from genus Rheum and Polygonum, significantly blocked the S protein and ACE2 interaction in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the infectivity of S protein-pseudotyped retrovirus to Vero E6 cells. These findings suggested that emodin may be considered as a potential lead therapeutic agent in the treatment of SARS.


Scientists observed the potential of emodin from Fo-ti to suppress the growth of colon and gallbladder cancer in mice [35, 36].
 

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