Brain Metabolism Predicts Fluid Intelligence And Creativity

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by haidut, Mar 23, 2016.

  1. haidut

    haidut Member

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    I am seeing more and more of these studies lately, and I consider it a good sign even though they always contain a disclaimer about the predominantly genetic component of non-fluid intelligence. Little by little, science is making an 180-degree turnaround that embraces the environment as key in many human features, including intelligence. Note how the study concludes that intelligence may be controllable through "diet, exercise or cognitive training". I wonder what a pro-metabolic diet would look like for these scientists...

    Multivariate Associations of Fluid Intelligence and NAA
    Study: Brain metabolism predicts fluid intelligence in young adults

    "...Fluid intelligence is one of the most useful cognitive measures available,” said U. of I. Ph.D. candidate Aki Nikolaidis, who led the research with Ryan Larsen, a research scientist at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, and Beckman Institute director Arthur Kramer. “This domain relates to an individual’s job satisfaction and salary level, among other real-world outcomes,” he said."

    "...The researchers measured concentrations of the molecule N-acetyl aspartate, a known marker of metabolic activity in the brain, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Nikolaidis then looked at the relationship between NAA concentrations in different regions of the brain and fluid intelligence."

    "...The team found that NAA concentration in an area of the brain linked to motor abilities in the frontal and parietal cortices was specifically linked to fluid intelligence but not to other closely related cognitive abilities. The brain’s motor regions have a role in planning and visualizing movements as well as carrying them out, Nikolaidis said. Mental visualization is a key element of fluid intelligence, he said. The researchers concluded that fluid intelligence depends on brain metabolism and health. While overall brain size is genetically determined and not readily changed, NAA levels and brain metabolism may respond to health interventions including diet, exercise or cognitive training, Nikolaidis said."

    The NAA metabolite the study looked at is produced by the mitochondria of neurons, so it does seem like a legitimate biomarker of brain metabolism intensity. Interestingly enough, the metabolite NAA that the study looked at is also apparently predictive of creativity.
    N-Acetylaspartic acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    "...NAA may also be a marker of creativity.[6] It has also been demonstrated that high NAA level in hippocampus is related to better working memory performance in humans.[7]"

    Creativity is also a biomarker of good metabolism according to Peat.
     
  2. High_Prob

    High_Prob Member

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  3. Fractality

    Fractality Member

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    MB enhances brain metabolism, correct?
     
  4. OP
    haidut

    haidut Member

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    Thanks, that's pretty interesting. Didn't know Reddit was that much into the weeds of intelligence. Most days when I read the Science section comments I feel like I am surrounded by rabid dogs:):
    I think the key point here is not to just raise NAA but to stimulate whatever metabolic process is responsible for synthesizing it. Simply elevating its levels is excitotoxic as shown by the several disease where NAA is elevated without corresponding increase in metabolism. Lithium is definitely legitimate nootropic and Peat said that sodium in higher doses would have the same effect. Salt is also a well-known pro-metabolic nutrient. So, maybe up salt intake for increasing intelligence??
     
  5. DaveFoster

    DaveFoster Member

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    They're more into the weed of intelligence.

    This really deserves more discussion, as I think we can unlock human potential by understanding Peat's ideas and applying them to expand our mental faculties.
     
  6. Parsifal

    Parsifal Member

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    Sure, the man must be the smartest being alive that I've read.
     
  7. DaveFoster

    DaveFoster Member

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    [​IMG]
    But yeah; it's mindblowing how much knowledge he can call upon.
     
  8. High_Prob

    High_Prob Member

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    The Early Decrease in N-Acetyl Aspartate / Glutathione, a Brain Health Marker, Induced by Vitamin A Deprivation in Rat is Reversed by Retinoic Acid†

    The Early Decrease in N-Acetyl Aspartate / Glutathione, a Brain Health Marker, Induced by Vitamin A Deprivation in Rat is Reversed by Retinoic Acid†

    The Open Magnetic Resonance Journal, 2009, 2: 71-79

    Marie-Christine Beauvieux, Nadirah Ghenimi Rahab, Gérard Raffard, Valérie Enderlin, Véronique Pallet, Paul Higueret, Jean-Louis Gallis

    he Centre de Résonance Magnétique des Systèmes Biologiques, UMR 5536 CNRS-UB2, 146 rue Léo Saignat

    Electronic publication date 9/12/2009
    [DOI: 10.2174/1874769800902010071]

    Abstract:
    Retinoids are involved in adult brain function and in neurodegenerative diseases. Decreased expression of synaptic plasticity markers and metabolic changes induced by 14 weeks of vitamin A deprivation (VAD14) were previously evidenced in rat brain. We evaluate early metabolic changes (by HRMAS proton NMR spectroscopy) on biopsies of cortex, hippocampus and striatum (i) during VAD and (ii) afterall trans Retinoic Acid administration.

    In 10 wk VAD (VAD10), metabolic changes appeared in the cortex: (i) N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, +15%, P=0.05 vs C10), a neuronal density indicator, (ii) glutathione (GSH, +30%, P=0.05 vs C10), an antioxidant status marker. Concerning the impact of VAD duration, the NAA/GSH ratio in cortex, hippocampus and striatum was unchanged in all controls, whereas it decreased in striatum and hippocampus of VAD10 and in striatum and cortex of VAD14. ATRA had an apparent regulatory action by increasing NAA/GSH ratio in hippocampus (VAD10+ATRA vs VAD10: +34%, P=0.03), the striatal ratio being rescued to control level. Gene expression of BACE and APP, which are amyloidogenesis markers, were unchanged in VAD10 whereas VAD14 seemed to activate cortical amyloidogenesis.

    Hypoexpression of retinoid signaling during a short 10 wk period has consequences on brain metabolic profile and precedes the impaired expression of both amyloidogenesis and synaptic plasticity markers. Rat nutritional VAD represents a model of accelerated aging which mimics the course of aging. The NAA/GSH ratio reflects the balance between neuronal health and protection against reactive oxygen species, and could thus serve as a marker of brain health.
     
  9. High_Prob

    High_Prob Member

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    I thought it was cool how Lithium apparently plays an adaptogenic role when it comes to NAA (in Bipolar and Canavan disease). The passage mentions that Lithium decreases levels of NAA in Canavan disease (where NAA levels are abnormally high), increases levels in Bipolar (where NAA levels are abnormally low) and does not appear to effect levels in normal subjects:

    Lithium citrate for Canavan disease. - PubMed - NCBI

    Pediatr Neurol. 2005 Oct;33(4):235-43.
    Lithium citrate for Canavan disease.
    Janson CG1, Assadi M, Francis J, Bilaniuk L, Shera D, Leone P.
    Author information
    Abstract
    Current evidence suggests that the effects of lithium on metabolic and signaling pathways in the brain may vary depending on the specific clinical condition or disease model. For example, lithium increases levels of cerebral N-acetyl aspartate in patients with bipolar disorder but does not appear to affect N-acetyl aspartate levels in normal human subjects. Conversely, lithium significantly decreases whole-brain levels of N-acetyl aspartate in a rat genetic model of Canavan disease in which cerebral N-acetyl aspartate is chronically elevated. While N-acetyl aspartate is a commonly used surrogate marker for neuronal density and correlates with neuronal viability, grossly elevated whole-brain levels of N-acetyl aspartate in Canavan disease are associated with dysmyelination and mental retardation. This report describes the first clinical application of lithium in a human subject with Canavan disease. Spectroscopic and clinical changes were observed over the time period in which lithium was administered, which reversed during a 2-week wash-out period after withdrawal of lithium. This investigation reports decreased N-acetyl aspartate levels in the brain regions tested and magnetic resonance spectroscopic values that are more characteristic of normal development and myelination, suggesting that a larger, controlled trial of lithium may be warranted as supportive therapy for Canavan disease by decreasing abnormally elevated N-acetyl aspartate.
     
  10. High_Prob

    High_Prob Member

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    http://www.ajnr.org/content/27/10/2083.full.pdf

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Iodine deficiency and hypothyroxinemia have a negative effect on the development of the central nervous system during fetal and early postnatal life. MR spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting the changes of brain metabolites in various neurodevelopmental disorders. By using MR spectroscopy, we aimed to show the decrease in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in neonates with hypothyroidism who were born in iodine-deficient areas and its normalization with early thyroxine therapy. METHODS: Eight congenital hypothyroid and 8 healthy full-term neonates were chosen as study and control groups, respectively. Serum thyroid hormones and median urinary iodine concentration of the neonates and their mothers were measured. Measurements of NAA, choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were made in frontal white matter, parietal white matter (PWM), and the thalamus with MR spectroscopy, first at 5–7 days of life and after 8 weeks of thyroxine therapy in the study group and at the same time in the control group. RESULTS: The patient group had significantly lower NAA/Cr ratios in PWM and the thalamus (P .05, for each), whereas the difference between Cho/Cr ratios of the 2 groups before therapy was not significant. After 8 weeks of thyroxine therapy, measurements did not show significant difference between study and control groups. CONCLUSION: MR spectroscopy performed in neonates with hypothyroidism reveals that intrauterine hypothyroxinemia due to iodine deficiency results in significant decrease in NAA levels in PWM and the thalamus and that the normalization of NAA levels is achieved with early thyroxine therapy
     
  11. Koveras

    Koveras Member

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    Thoughts?

    Proc Biol Sci. 1996 Aug 22;263(1373):1061-4.
    Is pH a biochemical marker of IQ?
    Rae C1, Scott RB, Thompson CH, Kemp GJ, Dumughn I, Styles P, Tracey I, Radda GK.

    We have measured intracellular brain pH in vivo in 42 boys and found a significant correlation between this biochemical parameter and samples of intelligent behaviour. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported relation between a biochemical marker which is within normal physiological values and intellectual ability. pH is one of the most accurate parameters that can be measured by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and it reflects sensitively cellular ionic status and metabolic activity. The observed correlation, although not implying a causal relation, raises the possibility that intelligent behaviour may be influenced by the ionic status of brain tissue, or vice versa.

    Screen Shot 2018-02-05 at 1.43.07 PM.png
     
  12. aarfai

    aarfai Member

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    increased CO2 (somewhat acidic) ---> increased cerebral blood flow ---> increased intelligence?

    cool study though
     
  13. pimpnamedraypeat

    pimpnamedraypeat Member

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    What's the p value. Looks like .02 or something
     
  14. Ideonaut

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    One thing Winn Wenger recommended in his book How to Increase Your Intelligence was bag breathing to increase CO2, which he said caused the carotid arteries to open more and increase blood flow to brain.
     
  15. aarfai

    aarfai Member

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    That's pretty cool I know Ray often speaks on CO2 and increased cerebral blood flow. Btw if I'm not mistaken isn't Win Wenger the image streaming guy? What are your thoughts on him and have you tried any of his techniques?
     
  16. Koveras

    Koveras Member

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    "full scale IQ" r=0.523, p=0.0008
     
  17. Travis

    Travis Member

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    Thyroid hormone has been shown to enhance microtubule polymerization directly, it physically binds with the polymer like GTP does.

    Nunez, Jacques. "Microtubules and brain development: the effects of thyroid hormones." Neurochemistry international (1985)

    Guanisine triphosphate is like ATP only with a different nucleotide, and is needed for microtubule growth. This is the most common reagent used in microtubule research besides tubulin—even more common than EDTA (needed to chelate any Ca²⁺ which inhibits microtubule polymerization.) Guanisine triphosphate is incorporated into the growing polymer between tubulin pairs. Since an ATP analogue is necessary for microtubule polymerization, you might think that oxidative phosphorylation is required for learning—perhapa the GTP/GDP ratio being important.

    But thyroid hormone or course has hormonal effects. Perhaps it could be like the eicosanoids, oxidized lipids originally having a functional defensive role with the hormonal function co‐opted only later in evolution?

    'Thyroid hormones appeared therefore to accelerate the onset of some component of the microtubules which is required to obtain fast assembly during the period of neuronal differentiation and intensive neurite outgrowth.' ―Nunez

    I think that 'intelligence' should perhaps be broken‐up into smaller concepts: knowledge, brain energy, and drive (motivation) all represent different things. Of these three, I think brain energy is the most important. With brain energy, a person can reconstruct the physical networks of their brain at a higher rate. Microtubules need to be broken down and reformed, forming the small arborations at the end of the dendritic tree: this is higher though processes, formed through the smallest unmyelinated microtubules (also the most labile). Even with only one branch point at each successive iteration (n = 2ˣ), the complexity of the dendritic tree grows exponentially.

    You might think the thicker myelinated nerves towards the brainstem would be more stable, perhaps representing long‐term and the physical—operational type of memory that allows us to type on the keyboard and drive a car. (If anyone is looking for a good article, they should read the one below:)

    Miller, Edward M. "Intelligence and brain myelination: A hypothesis." Personality and individual differences (1994)

    (I think this guys correlations and arguments could make @Kovernas forget about pH for awhile.. .)
     
  18. Koveras

    Koveras Member

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    Notable "[Thyroid] Hormone excess is almost as detrimental as deficiency."

    So basically an anti-MS protocol for intelligence? Bioidentical steroid and secosteroid hormones, thyroid, B vitamins...
     
  19. Travis

    Travis Member

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    I'd think progesterone and α-linolenic acid would help (see ↑ article on myelination). Of course, GTP needs to be present for brain microtubule polymerization to even occur; brain metabolism should correlate with rate of learning.

    Myelination correlates with nerve velocity.
     
  20. Regina

    Regina Member

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    Anecdotally, I stopped for gas (and a pitstop) at a combined Circle K/TacoBell/Gas Station halfway between Macon and Bollingbroke, Georgia. It seemed literally like stepping into a mental institution. Every one was yelling. A man screamed from his table in Taco Bell that he forgot his Funyons by the massive fountain drink station. He kept rocking and screaming for his Funyons. People were kicking things. Randomly blurting out things to no one. Roughly grabbing from the shelves. Every one appeared to be in their 40's. ??? Overweight and completely and utterly deranged. A woman slammed the bathroom door in my face and then backfisted it hard like a gorilla. (to let me know who's boss???) They will each get in their trucks/cars and drive on the highway. Selection bias, I suppose. But my God.
    Later, I imagined a video game where the object is to stuff the deranged yelling roving creatures mouths with washcloths before they backfist you.
     
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