Beyond Mitochondria, Cells Use What Energy Source? Answer: Melanin By Far

Discussion in 'Metabolism' started by tonto, Jun 14, 2018.

  1. tonto

    tonto Member

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    Was not expecting the conclusion of this paper... something to consider if things aren't making sense. I think this maintains RP's arguments for sunlight and the stress of lack of it. I think they probably overstate the %'s of how cells get energy, but interesting even if melanin is over 20% of cell energy compared with mitochondrial respiration. Also this is a factor in measuring Basal Metabolic Rates - indirect calorimetry uses a form of O2 in to CO2 out which does not account for melanin energy production which is photon in chemical energy out. However direct calorimetry (heat given off) would still work I would think (and body temps to some degree).

    "Currently, cell biology is based on glucose as the main source of energy. Cellular bioenergetic pathways have become unnecessarily complex in their eagerness to explain that how the cell is able to generate and use energy from the oxidation of glucose, where mitochondria play an important role through oxidative phosphorylation. During a descriptive study about the three leading causes of blindness in the world, the ability of melanin to transform light energy into chemical energy through the dissociation of water molecule was unraveled. Initially, during 2 or 3 years; we tried to link together our findings with the widely accepted metabolic pathways already described in metabolic pathway databases, which have been developed to collect and organize the current knowledge on metabolism scattered across a multitude of scientific articles. However, firstly, the literature on metabolism is extensive but rarely conclusive evidence is available, and secondly, one would expect these databases to contain largely the same information, but the contrary is true. For the apparently well studied metabolic process Krebs cycle, which was described as early as 1937 and is found in nearly every biology and chemistry curriculum, there is a considerable disagreement between at least five databases. Of the nearly 7000 reactions contained jointly by these five databases, only 199 are described in the same way in all the five databases. Thus to try to integrate chemical energy from melanin with the supposedly well-known bioenergetic pathways is easier said than done; and the lack of consensus about metabolic network constitutes an insurmountable barrier. After years of unsuccessful results, we finally realized that the chemical energy released through the dissociation of water molecule by melanin represents over 90% of cell energy requirements. These findings reveal a new aspect of cell biology, as glucose and ATP have biological functions related mainly to biomass and not so much with energy. Our finding about the unexpected intrinsic property of melanin to transform photon energy into chemical energy through the dissociation of water molecule, a role performed supposedly only by chlorophyll in plants, seriously questions the sacrosanct role of glucose and thereby mitochondria as the primary source of energy and power for the cells."

    Herrera, A.S., Del C A Esparza, M., Md Ashraf, G., Zamyatnin, A.A., Aliev, G., 2015. Beyond mitochondria, what would be the energy source of the cell? Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem 15, 32–41.​
     
  2. pimpnamedraypeat

    pimpnamedraypeat Member

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    So dark skinned people have less energy because they need more sun to produce the same melanin?

    Northern europeans and people from seattle wahsington are depressed because they dont get enough melanin
     
  3. Such_Saturation

    Such_Saturation Member

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    Are you sure about that :cool
     
  4. LeeLemonoil

    LeeLemonoil Member

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  5. benaoao

    benaoao Member

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    And melanotan II has some reports of depression as well. If you’re tan/dark you have to spend lots of time out in the sun for that tan to make sense so to speak. Dark skinned people should move down south indeed.
     
  6. lvysaur

    lvysaur Member

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    >dark skinned people lack melanin

    Those are some impressive mental gymnastics
     
  7. pimpnamedraypeat

    pimpnamedraypeat Member

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    Everyone knows about ice ages but most people dont realizr thst the earth also goes through intense hot spells that make the surface uninhabitable.
    Supposedly there was one of these hot spells 6 to 7 thousand years ago that made the surface too hot to live on and sent the surviving europeans and asians to the caves and underground cities.

    Bantus (who now make up the majority of african after exploding in population growth and overwhelming everyone else) are only about 6,000 years old...they are probably the youngest race of humans on earth. All anthropological and archaeological evidence shows africa was inhabitated by other types of african prior to bantu expansion. Those tiny asian looking tan ones are a good example.

    I'm betting that bantus came to exist during the firey cataclysm and evolved to survive in a much hotter environment than we currently have.

    That would be great if we were experiencing global warming but unfortunately we're heading into an ice age so they're gonna be sh*t out of luck pretty soon.
     
  8. lvysaur

    lvysaur Member

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    lmao

    I don't even know what to say anymore
     
  9. OP
    tonto

    tonto Member

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    Wow pimpnamedraypeat you are so smart, glad you added to this conversation. :wacky:
     
  10. Arrade

    Arrade Member

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    I don’t get this. Doesn’t Mt2 increase melanin production so it would be pro-benefit spoken of above?
     
  11. lvysaur

    lvysaur Member

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    yes. I'm guessing he's a northerner of a certain variety.
     
  12. LeeLemonoil

    LeeLemonoil Member

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    I‘d say the negative effects of Melanotan are because it’s probably highly estrogenic. „Side effects“ are said to be slimming by extreme curbing of hunger (serotonin?) and high libido (estradiol?).
    We have posted studies here on RPF that report that estrogens act on certain olfaction receptors in the skin and the GPE-Receptor and thereby promote melanogenesis while most androgens, niacinamide and progesterone prevent melanogenesis when they bind those receptors.
     
  13. Arrade

    Arrade Member

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    To be quite frank I just got some MT2 and used last night, I also used tb500. And I am in a strangely poor mood :/
    I hope it’s not estro! I don’t wanna tan a crap ton
     
  14. benaoao

    benaoao Member

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    I’m mixed Spanish and Vietnamese thank you for trying. In other words I’m dark AF, oh and my e2 is low.

    What happens when your melanin production is increased a lot making you practically unable to burn / requiring you to get hours of sun every day to feel normal, but you live on high latitudes?
     
  15. benaoao

    benaoao Member

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    I rephrased his post. I think this makes more sense now. Maybe we should try with “ATP” instead of vitamin D.
     
  16. lvysaur

    lvysaur Member

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    Yes, darker people need more intense light to achieve the same red light-mediated benefit. And that has nothing to do with the study's stated conclusion, which is that melanin helps create energy.
     
  17. benaoao

    benaoao Member

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    Damn yeah I skimmed through the OP too fast. Their questioning of the Krebs cycle and their conclusions are fantastic. First thing you learn in pharm university is the Krebs cycle and it’s taught like it’s the most perfect scientific knowledge we have.

    Got some more rethinking to do then. Great topic to delve deep in.
     
  18. jandrade1997

    jandrade1997 Member

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    Why can people survive (albeit not thrive) in dim lighting or even darkness, but will die without food after only a few weeks?
     
  19. benaoao

    benaoao Member

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    The best car in the world still needs some fuel in the tank, but said tank is only a minimal part of the engine
     
  20. benaoao

    benaoao Member

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