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paymanz

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Betaine improved adipose tissue function in mice fed a high-fat diet: a mechanism for hepatoprotective effect of betaine in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance in a variety of experimental models, including high-fat diet-fed mice (13, 42). To test if the observed beneficial effects of betaine supplementation in our study are related to its alleviative effects on ER stress response in adipose tissue, we measured three representative proteins induced/activated during ER stress, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), in epididymal fat pad. As shown in Fig. 6, long-term high-fat diet feeding induced both GRP78 and CHOP protein productions and JNK activation, indicative of the ER stress response. With betaine supplementation, the abnormal changes in all three proteins were rescued, suggesting that alleviating ER stress may play an important role in betaine's beneficial effects on adipose tissue function.


Betaine supplementation alleviated hepatic steatosis and lowered plasma ALT levels compared with the high-fat group, which were concomitant with improved HOMA-IR, circulating NEFA levels, and glucose tolerance test without affecting body weight changes and daily food consumptions, suggesting that betaine may act as an insulin sensitizer.

compared with the control group, high-fat diet feeding caused a significant decrease of plasma adiponectin levels (Fig. 4A), whereas leptin and resistin levels were increased significantly (Fig. 4, B and C). With betaine supplementation in the drinking water, all of these abnormalities were attenuated substantially.

Another one, also choline
High dietary choline and betaine intake is associated with low insulin resistance in the Newfoundland population. - PubMed - NCBI
 
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paymanz

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It is an intracellular osmolyte and protein stabilizer, like taurine and glycine ,so it probably protects the cells against some stresses ,one mechanism must be that.

However im not sure what ray thinks about this.

In some studies betaine also increased igf1 signaling.which again, is related to improved insulin action.
 
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paymanz

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Its a cofactor for methylation , maybe ray doesnt like this!
 

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