Aspirin, Mucin-2, Nafld & Colitis

Discussion in 'Scientific Studies' started by Koveras, Mar 1, 2016.

  1. Koveras

    Koveras Member

    Dec 17, 2015
    As usual - reading a random article took me in many directions, gave me more questions than answers, and an appreciation for the complexity of life

    Takeaways, thoughts and questions

    -Mucin-2 is a major component of the intestinal mucous layer

    -Mucin-2 deficient mice have lower serum endotoxin and lower amount of fat in the liver.

    -Aspirin lowers Mucin-2

    -Aspirin is shown to improve NAFLD, likely through multiple mechanisms

    -Deficient mucin is implicated in colitis and possibly gastric cancer however aspirin/salicylic acid has other anti-inflammatory effects and reduces gastric cancer incidence

    -Vitamin E, Glycine, and Caffeine may protect against aspirin induced gastric/mucosal injury

    Deficiency of intestinal mucin-2 protects mice from diet-induced fatty liver disease and obesity | Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

    "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are characterized by altered gut microbiota, inflammation, and gut barrier dysfunction. Here, we investigated the role of mucin-2 (Muc2) as the major component of the intestinal mucus layer in the development of fatty liver disease and obesity. We studied experimental fatty liver disease and obesity induced by feeding wild-type and Muc2-knockout mice a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 wk. Muc2 deficiency protected mice from HFD-induced fatty liver disease and obesity. Compared with wild-type mice, after a 16-wk HFD, Muc2-knockout mice exhibited better glucose homeostasis, reduced inflammation, and upregulated expression of genes involved in lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation in white adipose tissue. Compared with wild-type mice that were fed the HFD as well, Muc2-knockout mice also displayed higher intestinal and plasma levels of IL-22 and higher intestinal levels of the IL-22 target genes Reg3b and Reg3g. Our findings indicate that absence of the intestinal mucus layer activates the mucosal immune system. Higher IL-22 levels protect mice from diet-induced features of the metabolic syndrome."

    Deficiency of intestinal mucin-2 ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver disease in mice

    "The intestinal mucus layer protects the epithelium from noxious agents, viruses, and pathogenic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of mucins, predominantly mucin-2 (Muc2), secreted by goblet cells of the intestine. Experimental alcoholic liver disease requires translocation of bacterial products across the intestinal barrier into the systemic circulation, which induces an inflammatory response in the liver and contributes to steatohepatitis. We investigated the roles of the intestinal mucus layer, and in particular Muc2, in development of experimental alcohol-associated liver disease in mice. We studied experimental alcohol-induced liver disease, induced by the Tsukamoto-French method (which involves continuous intragastric feeding of an isocaloric diet or alcohol) in wild-type and Muc2−/− mice. Muc2−/−mice showed less alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis that developed in wild-type mice. Most notably, Muc2−/− mice had significantly lower plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide than wild-type mice after alcohol feeding. In contrast to wild-type mice, Muc2−/− mice were protected from alcohol-associated microbiome changes that are dependent on intestinal mucins. The anti-microbial proteins Reg3b and Reg3g were expressed at significantly higher levels in the jejunum of Muc2−/− mice fed the isocaloric diet or alcohol, compared with wild-type mice. Consequently, Muc2−/− mice showed increased killing of commensal bacteria and prevented intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: Muc2−/− mice are protected from intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis in response to alcohol feeding. Subsequently, lower amounts of bacterial products such as endotoxin translocate into the systemic circulation, decreasing liver disease."

    Aspirin changes the secretion rate and amino acid composition of human small intestinal mucin in subjects with ileal conduits. - PubMed - NCBI

    "The effect of aspirin on the rate of secretion and amino acid composition of human ileal mucin was studied, using subjects with ileal conduits as a model system in which mucin secreted from the ileal conduit tissue is flushed out in the urine and can be measured and analysed. Aspirin (600 mg per day, administered orally) increased the daily mucin output by 37-104% in subjects by days 3 or 4, but thereafter the mucin output declined to below the baseline level by day 10. Mucin samples, purified from the ileal conduit urine during the control period and during aspirin administration, were compared. There were no discernible changes in the degree of polymerisation or the density, but during aspirin administration the amino acid composition was significantly changed, and in particular threonine and proline were enriched. One possible explanation, consistent with the compositional analyses, is that the N- and C-terminal regions of the mucin subunits have been cleaved off and lost during aspirin administration. The observed changes in mucin secretion may have implications for the mechanism of the toxic effects of aspirin on the small intestine by altering the barrier properties of the mucus layer."

    Deoxycholic acid induces the overexpression of intestinal mucin, MUC2, via NF-kB signaling pathway in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. - PubMed - NCBI

    Mucin alterations are a common feature of esophageal neoplasia, and alterations in MUC2 mucin have been associated with tumor progression in the esophagus. Bile acids have been linked to esophageal adenocarcinoma and mucin secretion, but their effects on mucin gene expression in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells is unknown.

    Human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells were treated 18 hours with 50-300 muM deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, or taurocholic acid. MUC2 transcription was assayed using a MUC2 promoter reporter luciferase construct and MUC2 protein was assayed by Western blot analysis. Transcription Nuclear factor-kappaB activity was measured using a Nuclear factor-kappaB reporter construct and confirmed by Western blot analysis for Nuclear factor-kappaB p65.

    MUC2 transcription and MUC2 protein expression were increased four to five fold by bile acids in a time and dose-dependent manner with no effect on cell viability. Nuclear factor-kappaB activity was also increased. Treatment with the putative chemopreventive agent aspirin, which decreased Nuclear factor-kappaB activity, also decreased MUC2 transcription. Nuclear factor-kappaB p65 siRNA decreased MUC2 transcription, confirming the significance of Nuclear factor-kappaB in MUC2 induction by deoxycholic acid. Calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), greatly decreased bile acid induced MUC2 transcription and Nuclear factor-kappaB activity, whereas inhibitors of MAP kinase had no effect.

    Deoxycholic acid induced MUC2 overexpression in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells by activation of Nuclear factor-kappaB transcription through a process involving PKC-dependent but not PKA, independent of activation of MAP kinase."

    Inflammation modulates the expression of the intestinal mucins MUC2 and MUC4 in gastric tumors. - PubMed - NCBI

    "Infection of gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori induces an inflammatory response with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Among them, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 induce the activation of signaling pathways that regulate genes expression, such as MUC2 and MUC4 intestinal mucins ectopically detected in gastric tumors. This study evaluated if the predominant inflammatory cell type correlates with MUC2 and MUC4 expression in human intestinal gastric tumors (n=78). In addition, we analyzed the regulatory effects of the associated inflammatory signaling pathways on their expression in gastric cancer cell lines, and in a mouse model with hyperactivated STAT3 signaling pathway. Tumors with predominant lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate (chronic inflammation), presented higher levels of MUC2 and were more differentiated than tumors with predominant polymorphonuclear infiltrate (acute inflammation). These differences can be attributed to specific cytokines, because TNF-alpha and IL-1beta induced MUC2 but no MUC4 expression in gastric cancer cell lines. The two groups of tumors expressed similar levels of MUC4 that correlated with the expression of STAT3 transcription factor, implicated in the activation of genes through the IL-6 pathway. In gastric tissues from gp130(+/+), gp130(Y757F/Y757F) and gp130(Y757F/Y757F) Stat3(-/+) mice, Muc2 was not detected, whereas Muc4 was found in the gastric tumors developed in the gp130(Y757F/Y757F) mice, with hyperactivated STAT3. These data indicate that the signaling pathways associated with the inflammatory response can modulate the expression of MUC2 and MUC4 intestinal mucin genes, in human and mouse gastric tumors."

    There is a ‘uc’ in mucus, but is there mucus in UC?

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    Aspirin improves NAFLD, body composition, metabolic syndrome

    Association between aspirin use and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study from the Third National Health and ... - PubMed - NCBI
    Over-the-counter analgesics normalize blood glucose and body composition in mice fed a high fat diet. - PubMed - NCBI
    Metformin and salicylate synergistically activate liver AMPK, inhibit lipogenesis and improve insulin sensitivity. - PubMed - NCBI
    Effectiveness of antiplatelet drugs against experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. - PubMed - NCBI
    Review article: the metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. - PubMed - NCBI
    Reversal of obesity- and diet-induced insulin resistance with salicylates or targeted disruption of Ikkbeta. - PubMed - NCBI
  2. javacody

    javacody Member

    May 26, 2015
    So you are saying that these substances would counteract Aspirin's effect on improving NAFLD?
  3. DaveFoster

    DaveFoster Member

    Jul 23, 2015
    Spokane, Washington
    This post is awesome.

    @Koveras Cheers.