haidut

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This thread is similar to the one I created for beta-lapachone and in support of the Lapodin supplement I released.

Lapodin: https://raypeatforum.com/community/...pplement-with-beta-lapachone-and-emodin.9423/

Beta-lapachone: https://raypeatforum.com/community/...roperties-of-beta-lapachone-v-lapachone.9422/

I know Ray has written about some of the positive effects of emodin - an anthraquinone from Cascara, rhubarb, burdock, etc. However, there is no condensed list of the studies on its effects. Today, I released the supplement Lapodin and it contains emodin.

In the past, people have complained that the thread on my supplements is daunting to read when I dump there a few dozen studies. So, I thought that instead of overwhelming the Lapodin thread with studies I'd better post them separately and then simply refer people to this thread.
So here is the avalanche of positive studies for emodin. I sincerely doubt that any pharmaceutical drug (besides possibly aspirin and cyproheptadine) has been the subject of so many independent (read: unsponsored / untainted) studies, over so many years, for so many different issues. If my prediction of systemic effect magnitude being predictive of benefit is true then emodin easily beats any pharma drug sold in the last 30 years. Being a potent quinone, most (if not all) of the emodin benefits are due to its stimulation of respiration and especially raising NAD levels.
I did my best to separate the studies in sections by topic but I may have misplaced a few studies, so if you find such a case please let me know so that I can put it in the right section/topic.



Miscellaneous
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24428231
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23962559
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23864887 (anti-estrogen)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23696164
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21442678
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17540366



Cancer/Hypoxia
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26813281
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26782786
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26722474
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26722264
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26683360
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682731
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26629030
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26628989
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524020
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26238071
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162964
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26081222
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26018259
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25987055
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25948190
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25891176
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25834536
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25744842
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25673059
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607726
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25580427
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25370743
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25318952
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25311112
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25272825
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25187829
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174432
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25124606
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25081669
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25040975
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24707862
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620697
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24157255
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24115089
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24065213
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23975033
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23866157
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23848338
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23763280
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23700228
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524196
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23484691
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23480347
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23472074
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23440366
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26555969
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23046742
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22992976
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22974371
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22876305
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22799356
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22679728
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22565822
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22532249
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22378302
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22375400
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22343391
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22321733
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22299827
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22159556
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22137788
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22040955
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22038303
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21861846
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21805032
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21769433
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21743963
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21660305
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21608232
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21542284
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21491088
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21468555
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21438405
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21382473



Cortisol/Diabetes/Obesity
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26759701
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626587
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26299942
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25232702
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981886
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24691542
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24140264
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23303186
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22922341
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22673833
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22649478
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22645054
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22408453
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20718744
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699280
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18785977
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17511151
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12150738


Inflammation/CVD
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159184
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26139382
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131983
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26113441
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001677
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25867480
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634255
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24964845
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24855831
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24837536
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24751713
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24114447
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22791134
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22667136
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22426603
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22271272
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21881229
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21767904
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17939930
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16494030



Bones/Dental
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832436
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25187845
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24594415
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24565373
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23729279
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685361
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21245807
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20368118
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18387517



Neurological/Mental/Mood
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25590369
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25562207
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25064046
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25206430
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21303687
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21275776
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21137369
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24932776
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20863847
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20573598
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18301953
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17897641



Endotoxin/Gastrointestinal/Liver/Pancreas/Kidney
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742314
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26550148
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308161
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26084177
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26031413
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25957424
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25792514
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25565015
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25351888
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25347274
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25228362
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25173984
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24912640
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874440
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24750844
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24741989
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24740873
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727085
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24649070
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24190079
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24189982
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24028150
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23605470
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23551520
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23499696
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22735924
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22563203
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22452333
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22103790
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22044459
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22020806
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21912566
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21308995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265105
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20575398
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19968079
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19067753
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18706249
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15918207
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11776026



Anti-viral/Anti-bacterial/Anti-parasitic/Anti-fungal
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26670446
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26621875
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446827
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26151018
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25998658
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25966789
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25892872
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670452
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24448066
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21356245
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21050882
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20925591
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19960563
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18552872
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16940925
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338070
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15242821
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9462956
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8133650



Allergy/Respiratory
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25519442
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24239713
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23238477
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22484343
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21907188
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18785980
 

jyb

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Last edited:

haidut

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I share your enthusiasm for emodin as it doesn't seem to have obvious side effects (other than accelerated gut transit), unlike things cyproheptadine which side effects can make it very impractical for some (drowsyness, mood and a lot more complaints on this forum).

Speaking of side effects, have you looked at this recent thread? https://raypeatforum.com/community/threads/cascara-supresses-immune-system.8497/#post-115350

As another forum member noted, it sounds like serotonin symptoms. Never heard or seen studies of emodin/cascara producing such effects. But of course it is good to always be mindful of side effects.
 

jyb

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As another forum member noted, it sounds like serotonin symptoms. Never heard or seen studies of emodin/cascara producing such effects. But of course it is good to always be mindful of side effects.

The thread does link to studies. Although they don't refer to an obvious symptom. I myself also have trouble imagining any immediate and obvious symptom from cascara after years of use.
 

haidut

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The thread does link to studies. Although they don't refer to an obvious symptom. I myself also have trouble imagining any immediate and obvious symptom from cascara after years of use.

That one study says emodin is an antagonist on P2X7 receptor. Another one is P5P. Both substances are anti-inflammatory but to describe them as immunosuppressive is unwarranted IMO. Blocking P2X7 is used for treating HIV, and the last thing these people need is an immunosuppressant. So, no, blocking P2X7 is not immunosuppressive (assuming this is the mechanism of action of emodin in that study).
http://www.jimmunol.org/content/early/2012/03/26/jimmunol.1102482.full.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4659914/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340214/
 

Dan Wich

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Messages
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Here's "title-ified" versions of the links, I think this should help people that search for keywords related to their conditions.

Miscellaneous


Cancer/Hypoxia


Cortisol/Diabetes/Obesity

Inflammation/CVD


Bones/Dental


Neurological/Mental/Mood


Endotoxin/Gastrointestinal/Liver/Pancreas/Kidney


Anti-viral/Anti-bacterial/Anti-parasitic/Anti-fungal


Allergy/Respiratory
 

Nighteyes

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Interestingly, when I tried cascara for constipation I immediately had a sinus infection along with a general feeling of the flu. This happened two independent times of use. Of course it might have been serotonin, but I read a few studies back then that put me off emodin for the time being:


Emodin induces human T cell apoptosis in vitro by ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23811723

Immunosuppressive effects of emodin: an in vivo and in vitro study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19545739

Immunosuppressive effect of emodin, a free radical generator.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1535596


Not trying so put down the product here or anything, just trying to understand emodin better as I am tempted to try it again from a purer source (which you Haidut has just brought to us! yay).

Any thought on the quality / content of studies above?
 

Spondive

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I think my above post mainly applies to taking specifically Senna but not totally sure
 
Last edited:

ejalrp

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Interestingly, when I tried cascara for constipation I immediately had a sinus infection along with a general feeling of the flu. This happened two independent times of use. Of course it might have been serotonin, but I read a few studies back then that put me off emodin for the time being:


Emodin induces human T cell apoptosis in vitro by ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23811723

Immunosuppressive effects of emodin: an in vivo and in vitro study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19545739

Immunosuppressive effect of emodin, a free radical generator.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1535596


Not trying so put down the product here or anything, just trying to understand emodin better as I am tempted to try it again from a purer source (which you Haidut has just brought to us! yay).

Any thought on the quality / content of studies above?

I'd also like to hear some feedback on the above studies putting emodim in a less flattering light.
 

haidut

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Interestingly, when I tried cascara for constipation I immediately had a sinus infection along with a general feeling of the flu. This happened two independent times of use. Of course it might have been serotonin, but I read a few studies back then that put me off emodin for the time being:


Emodin induces human T cell apoptosis in vitro by ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23811723

Immunosuppressive effects of emodin: an in vivo and in vitro study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19545739

Immunosuppressive effect of emodin, a free radical generator.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1535596


Not trying so put down the product here or anything, just trying to understand emodin better as I am tempted to try it again from a purer source (which you Haidut has just brought to us! yay).

Any thought on the quality / content of studies above?

I think we already discussed this in another thread. Emodin is used for immunocompromised conditions like HIV, and leukemia, and is in clinical trials right now. If it was indeed immunosuppressive, that would have been a show-stopper for such conditions. The flu-like symptoms are most likely gut irritation, but there is no way to tell for sure without doing a more controlled experiment with some blood tests.
 

haidut

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I think my above post mainly applies to taking specifically Senna but not totally sure

Peat is against using Senna and like you said the blackening of the colon is mostly seen with Senna products OR with very high dose Cascara (up to 1tbsp) used chronically. I think the effects is due not to emodin but to one of the other anthraquinones in Cascara. Actually the plain anthraquinone molecule has some toxicity (unlike emodin) and this is why it was used to develop some of the early anthracyclin therapies - i.e. to kill "cancer" cells. Hopefully, nobody here is ingesting tablespoons of cascara on a regular basis.
 

SQu

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"Hopefully, nobody here is ingesting tablespoons of cascara on a regular basis."

1/8 to 1/4 tsp cascara but more - 1 heaped tsp - pau d arco daily. Enough for concern? Or is beta lapachone not a problem in this way?
 

haidut

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"Hopefully, nobody here is ingesting tablespoons of cascara on a regular basis."

1/8 to 1/4 tsp cascara but more - 1 heaped tsp - pau d arco daily. Enough for concern? Or is beta lapachone not a problem in this way?

Not even close to a tablespoon, which is usually 3-4 tsp:):
 

superhuman

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For me that struggle with endotoxin that results in to high estrogen and cortisol. I use carrot salad daily and i use cascara before bed.
So far it has not helped much so i want to increase it. Is taking some cascara 3 times a day a good way as a "therapy" for lowering endotoxin?
 

haidut

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For me that struggle with endotoxin that results in to high estrogen and cortisol. I use carrot salad daily and i use cascara before bed.
So far it has not helped much so i want to increase it. Is taking some cascara 3 times a day a good way as a "therapy" for lowering endotoxin?

I don't know that cascara helps directly with endotoxin. What it does is speed up food transit through colon so less endotoxin is formed, and also once endotoxi is formes the emodin in cascara helps negate some of the effects of endotoxin on NO and serotonin. If you suspect you have high endotoxin, maybe some antibiotics won't hurt.
 

mujuro

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haidut, have you found anything in your readings that indicates that the anthraquinones in Pau D'arco would inflict similar damages on the colon as high dose Cascara?
 

haidut

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haidut, have you found anything in your readings that indicates that the anthraquinones in Pau D'arco would inflict similar damages on the colon as high dose Cascara?

No, I have not seen anything indicating that the lapachones would have the same effect on colon. Also, if you take it topically cascara won't have the colon-darkening effects it exhibits when taken orally.
 

mujuro

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No, I have not seen anything indicating that the lapachones would have the same effect on colon. Also, if you take it topically cascara won't have the colon-darkening effects it exhibits when taken orally.

Good to know. I just got my order of cascara and PDA capsules, but in light of this thread, I instead ordered some of your Lapodin. I'll keep the cascara for its laxative benefits and use sparingly.
 
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